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The existence of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) has been postulated from evidence that the mammary gland can be regenerated by transplantation of epithelial fragments in mice. Interest in MaSCs has been further stimulated by their potential role in breast tumorigenesis. However, the identity and purification of MaSCs has proved elusive owing to the lack of(More)
Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that maintain mammary epithelial tissue integrity is of broad interest and paramount to the design of more effective treatments for breast cancer. Evidence from both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggests that mammary cell differentiation is a hierarchical process originating in an uncommitted stem(More)
Basal-like breast cancers arising in women carrying mutations in the BRCA1 gene, encoding the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1, are thought to develop from the mammary stem cell. To explore early cellular changes that occur in BRCA1 mutation carriers, we have prospectively isolated distinct epithelial subpopulations from normal mammary tissue and(More)
MOTIVATION A gene set test is a differential expression analysis in which a P-value is assigned to a set of genes as a unit. Gene set tests are valuable for increasing statistical power, organizing and interpreting results and for relating expression patterns across different experiments. Existing methods are based on permutation. Methods that rely on(More)
The estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PR), and erbB2 (Her2 in humans) are important prognostic markers of human breast cancer, and they are variably expressed in different subtypes of breast cancer. The basal subtype, for example, is negative for ERalpha, PR, and Her2 by immunohistochemistry. We investigated the expression of these(More)
INTRODUCTION Molecular characterization of the normal epithelial cell types that reside in the mammary gland is an important step toward understanding pathways that regulate self-renewal, lineage commitment, and differentiation along the hierarchy. Here we determined the gene expression signatures of four distinct subpopulations isolated from the mouse(More)
The ovarian hormones oestrogen and progesterone profoundly influence breast cancer risk, underpinning the benefit of endocrine therapies in the treatment of breast cancer. Modulation of their effects through ovarian ablation or chemoprevention strategies also significantly decreases breast cancer incidence. Conversely, there is an increased risk of breast(More)
Members of the Runx and MYC families have been implicated as collaborating oncogenes. The mechanism of this potent collaboration is elucidated in this study of Runx2/MYC mice. As shown previously, ectopic expression of Runx2 in the thymus leads to a preneoplastic state defined by an accumulation of cells with an immature phenotype and a low proliferative(More)
The RUNX1/AML1 gene is a frequent target for chromosomal translocations in human leukemia. The biological properties of the resulting fusion products and the finding that haploinsufficiency increases the risk of developing leukemia (W-J. Song et al., Nat. Genet., 23: 166-175, 1999; M. Osata et al., Blood, 93: 1817-1824, 1999) have led to the widely held(More)
In vivo transplantation is the current 'gold-standard' assay for evaluating mammary stem cell (MaSC) function. Matrigel, a reconstituted extracellular matrix derived from a mouse sarcoma line, is increasingly being utilized for mammary repopulating assays, although original studies were carried out in its absence. This matrix has also been shown to enhance(More)