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The glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, encoded by the gene Grl1) controls transcription of target genes both directly by interaction with DNA regulatory elements and indirectly by cross-talk with other transcription factors. In response to various stimuli, including stress, glucocorticoids coordinate metabolic, endocrine, immune and nervous system responses and(More)
In mammals, circadian oscillators reside not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which harbors the central pacemaker, but also in most peripheral tissues. Here, we show that the glucocorticoid hormone analog dexamethasone induces circadian gene expression in cultured rat-1 fibroblasts and transiently changes the phase of circadian gene(More)
Control of cellular survival and proliferation is dependent on extracellular signals and is a prerequisite for ordered tissue development and maintenance. Activation of the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) by phosphorylation has been implicated in the survival of mammalian cells. To define its roles in the mouse central nervous system, we(More)
The adrenal hormone corticosterone transcriptionally regulates responsive genes in the rodent hippocampus through nuclear mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Via this genomic pathway the hormone alters properties of hippocampal cells slowly and for a prolonged period. Here we report that corticosterone also rapidly and reversibly changes(More)
Hepatic glucose production by gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during fasting and contributes significantly to hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, glucose metabolism is tightly controlled by a variety of hormones including insulin, epinephrine, glucagon, and glucocorticoids (GCs) acting on various cell types. GC effects are(More)
The circadian timing system in mammals is composed of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and slave clocks in most peripheral cell types. The phase of peripheral clocks can be completely uncoupled from the SCN pacemaker by restricted feeding. Thus, feeding time, while not affecting the phase of the SCN pacemaker, is a(More)
Numerous liver specific genes are transcriptionally activated by the binding to their promoter or enhancer of Hepatic Nuclear Factor 1 (HNF1). HNF1 contains a variant homeo-domain and binds to DNA as either a homodimer or a heterodimer with the vHNF1 protein. Surprisingly, HNF1 is not restricted to hepatocytes but is expressed in epithelial cells of several(More)
The pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) type I receptor (PAC1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor binding the strongly conserved neuropeptide PACAP with 1000-fold higher affinity than the related peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide. PAC1-mediated signaling has been implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity. To gain(More)
To create a strategy for inducible gene targeting we developed a Cre-lox recombination system which responds to the synthetic steroid RU 486. Several fusions between Cre recombinase and the hormone binding domain (HBD) of a mutated human progesterone receptor, which binds RU 486 but not progesterone, were constructed. When tested in transient expression(More)