François Smeets

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To identify possible vectors of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), we tested pools containing heads of biting midges (Culicoides) that were caught during the summer and early autumn of 2011 at several places in Belgium by real-time RT-PCR. Pools of heads originating from following species: C. obsoletus complex, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus were found positive,(More)
Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in(More)
In Gram-positive bacteria, CodY is an important regulator of genes whose expression changes under conditions of nutrient limitation. Bacillus anthracis CodY represses or activates directly or indirectly approximately 500 genes. Affinity purification of CodY-DNA complexes was used to identify the direct targets of CodY. Of the 389 DNA binding sites that were(More)
Mycobacterium avium represents a health concern for both humans and pigs. The characterisation of its subspecies is an important step improving the understanding of the epidemiology and the control of this pathogen. Ninety-two human M. avium strains were selected for a retrospective study. Subspecies determination by rpoB sequencing and IS1245/IS901(More)
Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much(More)
In 2011, Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of Belgium with Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OVI) traps and at two locations with Rothamsted suction traps (RSTs). Quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between(More)
The genotypic characterization of Coxiella burnetii provides useful information about the strains circulating at the farm, region, or country level and may be used to identify the source of infection for animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the strains of C. burnetii circulating in caprine and bovine Belgian farms using a(More)
A sero-epidemiological survey was organized among veterinarians working in Southern Belgium to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and the risk factors associated with exposure. A total of 108 veterinarians took part to this cross-sectional study, with a majority practicing with livestock animals. The overall seroprevalence was 45.4%, but it increased to(More)
Characteristics of the fermentation process Sucrose is fermented to lactic acid by a culture of lactic acid bacteria. The fermentation is carried out batchwise at a temperature above 50 ~ Strict sterile conditions are not necessary. In contrast to earlier described industrial processes, in this process the pH is kept constant by the addition of lime. The(More)
Mycobacterium avium is one of the most frequently isolated nontuberculous mycobacteria, responsible of human and porcine infections. The species M avium consists of four subspecies; M avium subspecies avium (MAA), M avium subspecies silvaticum (MAS), M avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and M avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) (Thorel and others 1990,(More)
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