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BACKGROUND The increasing availability of fungal genome sequences provides large numbers of proteins for evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses. However the heterogeneity of data, including the quality of genome annotation and the difficulty of retrieving true orthologs, makes such investigations challenging. The aim of this study was to provide a reliable(More)
We address the problem of protein secondary structure prediction with Hidden Markov Models. A 21-state model is built using biological knowledge and statistical analysis of sequence motifs in regular secondary structures. Sequence family information is integrated via the combination of independent predictions of homologous sequences and a weighting scheme.(More)
We present here the use of a new statistical segmentation method on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome sequence. Maximum likelihood parameter estimation of a hidden Markov model, based on the expectation-maximization algorithm, enables one to segment the DNA sequence according to its local composition. This approach is not based on sliding windows; it enables(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary structure prediction is a useful first step toward 3D structure prediction. A number of successful secondary structure prediction methods use neural networks, but unfortunately, neural networks are not intuitively interpretable. On the contrary, hidden Markov models are graphical interpretable models. Moreover, they have been(More)
Proteins are major constituents of living cells, forming many cellular components and most enzymes. So, knowledge of 3D protein structures is essential to understand biological mechanisms. Researchers often use neural networks to predict secondary structure in proteins, but the networks can be hard to interpret. This alternative method uses an optimal and(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative mapping provides new insights into the evolutionary history of genomes. In particular, recent studies in mammals have suggested a role for segmental duplication in genome evolution. In some species such as Drosophila or maize, transposable elements (TEs) have been shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we(More)
BACKGROUND The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum(More)
Deciphering the genetic bases of pathogen adaptation to its host is a key question in ecology and evolution. To understand how the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae adapts to different plants, we sequenced eight M. oryzae isolates differing in host specificity (rice, foxtail millet, wheat, and goosegrass), and one Magnaporthe grisea isolate specific of crabgrass.(More)
We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to(More)