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BACKGROUND The increasing availability of fungal genome sequences provides large numbers of proteins for evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses. However the heterogeneity of data, including the quality of genome annotation and the difficulty of retrieving true orthologs, makes such investigations challenging. The aim of this study was to provide a reliable(More)
Phylogenies involving nonmodel species are based on a few genes, mostly chosen following historical or practical criteria. Because gene trees are sometimes incongruent with species trees, the resulting phylogenies may not accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships among species. The increase in availability of genome sequences now provides large(More)
We address the problem of protein secondary structure prediction with Hidden Markov Models. A 21-state model is built using biological knowledge and statistical analysis of sequence motifs in regular secondary structures. Sequence family information is integrated via the combination of independent predictions of homologous sequences and a weighting scheme.(More)
We present here the use of a new statistical segmentation method on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome sequence. Maximum likelihood parameter estimation of a hidden Markov model, based on the expectation-maximization algorithm, enables one to segment the DNA sequence according to its local composition. This approach is not based on sliding windows; it enables(More)
The genome length, in units of Morgans or centimorgans, is a fundamental feature of a species. It can be calculated from a complete linkage map. However, the genome size can be estimated with partial linkage data. Using linkage data obtained by the analysis of a two-dimensional electrophoresis of the proteins contained in an haploid organ, the(More)
Proteins from haploid megagametophytes from 18 trees were studied by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). A total of 222 seeds, an average of 12 per tree, were analysed individually. 150 protein spots appeared to segregate on the polyacrylamide gels in at least tree. Genetic interpretations were made to define the number of loci(More)
The rapid evolution of particular genes is essential for the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts and new environments. Powerful methods have been developed for detecting targets of selection in the genome. Here we used divergence data to compare genes among four closely related fungal pathogens adapted to different hosts to elucidate the functions(More)
The first step in the construction of a linkage map involves the estimation and test for linkage between all possible pairs of markers. The lod score method is used in many linkage studies for the latter purpose. In contrast with classical statistical tests, this method does not rely on the choice of a first-type error level. We thus provide a comparison(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative mapping provides new insights into the evolutionary history of genomes. In particular, recent studies in mammals have suggested a role for segmental duplication in genome evolution. In some species such as Drosophila or maize, transposable elements (TEs) have been shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary structure prediction is a useful first step toward 3D structure prediction. A number of successful secondary structure prediction methods use neural networks, but unfortunately, neural networks are not intuitively interpretable. On the contrary, hidden Markov models are graphical interpretable models. Moreover, they have been(More)