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The mast cell is one of the major effector cells in inflammatory reactions and can be found in most tissues throughout the body. During inflammation, an increase in the number of mast cells in the local milieu occurs, and such accumulation requires directed migration of this cell population. As it has previously been reported that the human(More)
Mast cells are known to accumulate at the sites of inflammation in response to chemoattractants generated in the local milieu. Since human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is generated in several epithelial tissues where mast cells are present and because we have recently reported that this human antibacterial peptide induces mast cell degranulation, we thus(More)
Besides their microbicidal functions, human beta-defensins (hBD) and LL-37 activate different immune and inflammatory cells, and their expression is enhanced in inflamed skin and cutaneous wound sites. To protect against pathogens, the skin produces antimicrobial peptides including hBDs and LL-37. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether(More)
Neutrophils are the effector cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, where they perform the functions of phagocytosis and killing of bacteria. They respond to a large number of chemoattractants, but their response to epithelial cell-derived human beta-defensins (hBD) has not been investigated. Here we report that hBD-2, but not hBD-1, is a specific(More)
Antimicrobial peptides, human beta-defensins (hBD-1/-2), and LL-37 (a peptide of human cathelicidin CAP18) are predominately expressed at epithelial tissues, where they participate in the innate host defense by killing invading microorganisms. In this study, to investigate the interactions between epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial peptides and mast(More)
Mammalian myeloid and epithelial cells express various peptide antibiotics (such as defensins and cathelicidins) that contribute to the innate host defense against invading microorganisms. Among these peptides, human cathelicidin CAP18/LL-37 (L(1) to S(37)) possesses not only potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but(More)
Human β-defensins (hBDs) are host defense peptides that not only exhibit microbicidal properties but also stimulate various cellular activities, including keratinocyte proliferation, migration, and wound healing. hBDs are overexpressed in the skin in cases of psoriasis but are downregulated in atopic dermatitis skin, although both diseases are associated(More)
BACKGROUND Skin-derived antimicrobial peptides, such as human β-defensins and cathelicidins, actively contribute to host defense by inactivating microorganisms. Catestatin, a neuroendocrine peptide that affects human autonomic functions, has recently been detected in keratinocytes upon injury/infection where it inhibits the growth of pathogens. Human(More)
Simultaneous activation of murine mast cells by monomeric IgE and toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands was examined. Inflammatory cytokine production elicited by the binding of IgE in the absence of antigen, was further enhanced by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN). Enhancement by LPS or PGN on cytokine production was mediated by(More)