François Képès

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UNLABELLED We propose a simple algorithm to detect dominating synonymous codon usage bias in genomes. The algorithm is based on a precise mathematical formulation of the problem that lead us to use the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) as a 'universal' measure of codon bias. This measure has been previously employed in the specific context of translational bias.(More)
Transcriptional activity has been shown to relate to the organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the bacterial nucleoid. In particular, highly transcribed genes, RNA polymerases and transcription factors gather into discrete spatial foci called transcription factories. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of these foci and(More)
1–4. For example, an algorithm inspired by evolution that aims to estimate the phylogeny of a set of amino-acid sequences might 'evolve' one or more sets of parameters that describe the topology and branch lengths of a phyloge-netic tree. It might do so by simulating the data under each of several proposed trees, selecting trees that produce higher(More)
The principles underlying the architectural landscape of chromatin beyond the nucleosome level in living cells remains largely unknown despite its potential to play a role in mammalian gene regulation. We investigated the three-dimensional folding of a 1 Mbp region of human chromosome 11 containing the β-globin genes by integrating looping interactions of(More)
Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle and modulating gene expression to ensure efficient DNA repair. We used global transcriptome analysis to investigate the role of ploidy and mating-type in inducing the response to damage in various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We observed a response to DNA damage specific to haploid(More)
MOTIVATION The costs of head-on versus codirectional collisions between the replication complex and the much slower transcription complex on the circular bacterial chromosomes are much debated. Although it is established that the number of genes on the leading strand is higher than on the lagging strand of replication, the consequences of collisions on the(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic in yeast proceeds by the maturation of membrane compartments from post-ER vesicles to intermediate small vesicle tubular clusters (VTCs) to Golgi nodular membrane networks (Morin-Ganet et al., Traffic 2000; 1: 56-68). The balance between ER and Golgi compartments is maintained by COPII- and COPI-mediated(More)
The relevance of biological materials and processes to computing-alias bioputing-has been explored for decades. These materials include DNA, RNA and proteins, while the processes include transcription, translation, signal transduction and regulation. Recently, the use of bacteria themselves as living computers has been explored but this use generally falls(More)
BACKGROUND The specific position of functionally related genes along the DNA has been shown to reflect the interplay between chromosome structure and genetic regulation. By investigating the statistical properties of the distances separating such genes, several studies have highlighted various periodic trends. In many cases, however, groups built up from(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the interplay between galactose, Gal3p, Gal80p and Gal4p determines the transcriptional status of the genes required for galactose utilization. After an increase in galactose concentration, galactose molecules bind onto Gal3p. This event leads via Gal80p to the activation of Gal4p, which then induces GAL3 and GAL80(More)