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Interpretation of high-throughput biological data requires a knowledge of the design principles underlying the networks that sustain cellular functions. Of particular importance is the genetic network, a set of genes that interact through directed transcriptional regulation. Genes that exert a regulatory role encode dedicated transcription factors(More)
UNLABELLED We propose a simple algorithm to detect dominating synonymous codon usage bias in genomes. The algorithm is based on a precise mathematical formulation of the problem that lead us to use the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) as a 'universal' measure of codon bias. This measure has been previously employed in the specific context of translational bias.(More)
New and simple numerical criteria based on a codon adaptation index are applied to the complete genomic sequences of 80 Eubacteria and 16 Archaea, to infer weak and strong genome tendencies toward content bias, translational bias, and strand bias. These criteria can be applied to all microbial genomes, even those for which little biological information is(More)
SOI3 was identified by a mutation, soi3-1, that suppressed a mutant trans-Golgi network (TGN) localization signal in the Kex2p cytosolic tail. SOI3, identical to RAV1, encodes a protein important for regulated assembly of vacuolar ATPase. Here, we show that Soi3/Rav1p is required for transport between the early endosome and the late endosome/prevacuolar(More)
The organization of transcription within the prokaryotic nucleoid may be expected to both depend on and determine the structure of the chromosome. Indeed, immunofluorescence localization of transcriptional regulators has revealed foci in actively transcribing Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, structural and biochemical approaches suggest that there are(More)
Transcriptional activity has been shown to relate to the organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the bacterial nucleoid. In particular, highly transcribed genes, RNA polymerases and transcription factors gather into discrete spatial foci called transcription factories. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of these foci and(More)
The P-type ATPases comprise a well-studied family of proteins involved in the active transport of charged substrates across biological membranes. Starting from a mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage cDNA library and using a signal peptide trapping strategy, we identified a new P-type ATPase family member. We characterized the genomic structure of this gene,(More)
The principles underlying the architectural landscape of chromatin beyond the nucleosome level in living cells remains largely unknown despite its potential to play a role in mammalian gene regulation. We investigated the three-dimensional folding of a 1 Mbp region of human chromosome 11 containing the β-globin genes by integrating looping interactions of(More)
In synchronized culture of Escherichia coli, the specific arrest of phospholipid synthesis (brought about by glycerol starvation in an appropriate mutant) did not affect the rate of ongoing DNA synthesis but prevented the initiation of new rounds. The initiation block did not depend on cell age at the time of glycerol removal, which could be before, during,(More)