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UNLABELLED We propose a simple algorithm to detect dominating synonymous codon usage bias in genomes. The algorithm is based on a precise mathematical formulation of the problem that lead us to use the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) as a 'universal' measure of codon bias. This measure has been previously employed in the specific context of translational bias.(More)
Interpretation of high-throughput biological data requires a knowledge of the design principles underlying the networks that sustain cellular functions. Of particular importance is the genetic network, a set of genes that interact through directed transcriptional regulation. Genes that exert a regulatory role encode dedicated transcription factors(More)
New and simple numerical criteria based on a codon adaptation index are applied to the complete genomic sequences of 80 Eubacteria and 16 Archaea, to infer weak and strong genome tendencies toward content bias, translational bias, and strand bias. These criteria can be applied to all microbial genomes, even those for which little biological information is(More)
A careful scrutiny of the dynamics of secretory compartments in the entire eukaryotic world reveals many common themes. The most fundamental theme is that the Golgi apparatus and related structures appear as compartments formed by the act of transporting cargo. The second common theme is the pivotal importance for endomembrane dynamics of shifting back and(More)
1–4. For example, an algorithm inspired by evolution that aims to estimate the phylogeny of a set of amino-acid sequences might 'evolve' one or more sets of parameters that describe the topology and branch lengths of a phyloge-netic tree. It might do so by simulating the data under each of several proposed trees, selecting trees that produce higher(More)
Transcriptional activity has been shown to relate to the organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the bacterial nucleoid. In particular, highly transcribed genes, RNA polymerases and transcription factors gather into discrete spatial foci called transcription factories. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of these foci and(More)
The principles underlying the architectural landscape of chromatin beyond the nucleosome level in living cells remains largely unknown despite its potential to play a role in mammalian gene regulation. We investigated the three-dimensional folding of a 1 Mbp region of human chromosome 11 containing the β-globin genes by integrating looping interactions of(More)
Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle and modulating gene expression to ensure efficient DNA repair. We used global transcriptome analysis to investigate the role of ploidy and mating-type in inducing the response to damage in various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We observed a response to DNA damage specific to haploid(More)
MOTIVATION The costs of head-on versus codirectional collisions between the replication complex and the much slower transcription complex on the circular bacterial chromosomes are much debated. Although it is established that the number of genes on the leading strand is higher than on the lagging strand of replication, the consequences of collisions on the(More)