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Interpretation of high-throughput biological data requires a knowledge of the design principles underlying the networks that sustain cellular functions. Of particular importance is the genetic network, a set of genes that interact through directed transcriptional regulation. Genes that exert a regulatory role encode dedicated transcription factors(More)
UNLABELLED We propose a simple algorithm to detect dominating synonymous codon usage bias in genomes. The algorithm is based on a precise mathematical formulation of the problem that lead us to use the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) as a 'universal' measure of codon bias. This measure has been previously employed in the specific context of translational bias.(More)
Transcriptional activity has been shown to relate to the organization of chromosomes in the eukaryotic nucleus and in the bacterial nucleoid. In particular, highly transcribed genes, RNA polymerases and transcription factors gather into discrete spatial foci called transcription factories. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of these foci and(More)
1–4. For example, an algorithm inspired by evolution that aims to estimate the phylogeny of a set of amino-acid sequences might 'evolve' one or more sets of parameters that describe the topology and branch lengths of a phyloge-netic tree. It might do so by simulating the data under each of several proposed trees, selecting trees that produce higher(More)
Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle and modulating gene expression to ensure efficient DNA repair. We used global transcriptome analysis to investigate the role of ploidy and mating-type in inducing the response to damage in various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We observed a response to DNA damage specific to haploid(More)
The principles underlying the architectural landscape of chromatin beyond the nucleosome level in living cells remains largely unknown despite its potential to play a role in mammalian gene regulation. We investigated the three-dimensional folding of a 1 Mbp region of human chromosome 11 containing the β-globin genes by integrating looping interactions of(More)
MOTIVATION The costs of head-on versus codirectional collisions between the replication complex and the much slower transcription complex on the circular bacterial chromosomes are much debated. Although it is established that the number of genes on the leading strand is higher than on the lagging strand of replication, the consequences of collisions on the(More)
BACKGROUND The specific position of functionally related genes along the DNA has been shown to reflect the interplay between chromosome structure and genetic regulation. By investigating the statistical properties of the distances separating such genes, several studies have highlighted various periodic trends. In many cases, however, groups built up from(More)
Five common assumptions about the first cells are challenged by the pre-biotic ecology model and are replaced by the following propositions: firstly, early cells were more complex, more varied and had a greater diversity of constituents than modern cells; secondly, the complexity of a cell is not related to the number of genes it contains, indeed, modern(More)
The relevance of biological materials and processes to computing-alias bioputing-has been explored for decades. These materials include DNA, RNA and proteins, while the processes include transcription, translation, signal transduction and regulation. Recently, the use of bacteria themselves as living computers has been explored but this use generally falls(More)