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One of the first steps in HIV gene expression is the recruitment of Tat protein to the transcription machinery after its binding to the RNA response element TAR. Starting from a pool of 3.2 x 10(6) individual chemical entities, we were able to select a hybrid peptoid/peptide oligomer of 9 residues (CGP64222) that was able to block the formation of the(More)
The main transcriptional regulator of the human immunodeficiency virus, the Tat protein, recognizes and binds to a small structured RNA element at the 5' end of every viral mRNA, termed TAR. On the basis of published structural data of the molecular interactions between TAR and Tat-related peptides, we defined requirements for potential low-molecular weight(More)
We previously reported that retinoids were inducing a complete switch in the expression of two isoforms from the fgf8 gene. In order to gain insight into the transcriptional mechanisms possibly involved in this regulation, we cloned and sequenced a fragment of genomic DNA encompassing 6 kb of the region 5' upstream of the fgf8 coding sequence and(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic variation in the HIV-1 pol gene, which encodes the main targets for anti-HIV drugs, may favors different susceptibility and resistance pathways to antiretroviral agents. Several amino acid substitutions occur frequently in some non-B viruses at positions associated with drug resistance in clade B viruses. The clinical relevance of those(More)
Novel highly potent CXCR4 inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic properties were designed and optimized starting from the naturally occurring beta-hairpin peptide polyphemusin II. The design involved incorporating important residues from polyphemusin II into a macrocyclic template-bound beta-hairpin mimetic. Using a parallel synthesis approach, the potency(More)
The binding site for tat on TAR RNA was analysed by preparing a series of model RNA substrates carrying site-specific functional group modifications. The test RNAs were prepared by annealing two short synthetic oligoribonucleotides to form a duplex structure with a U-rich bulge and flanking sequences identical to TAR RNA. Tat binds these duplex RNAs with(More)
Data on genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing of HIV-1 in the routine clinical setting are lacking. In a retrospective single-center study, all patients (n = 102) for whom genotypic resistance typing (GRT) and phenotypic resistance typing (PRT) were performed during the calendar year 2002 were examined. GRT and PRT results were concordant for 79% of(More)
The HIV-1 regulatory proteins tat and rev are both RNA binding proteins which recognize sequences in duplex RNA which are close to structural distortions. Here we identify phosphate contacts which are critical for each binding reaction by use of a new method. Model RNA binding sites are constructed carrying substitutions of individual phosphodiesters by(More)
The transactivation response region (TAR) RNA is an essential component in transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genome. We have examined the interaction between TAR RNA and the bisbenzimidazole derivative Hoechst 33258. Previous studies have shown that this drug, which is well known as an AT-selective DNA minor(More)
The binding site for tat protein on TAR RNA has been defined in quantitative terms using an extensive series of mutations. The relative dissociation constants for the mutant TAR RNAs were measured using a dual-label competition filter binding assay in which 35S-labelled wild-type TAR RNA (K1) was competed against 3H-labelled mutant TAR RNA (K2). The error(More)