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During animal development, several planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways control tissue shape by coordinating collective cell behavior. Here, we characterize by means of multiscale imaging epithelium morphogenesis in the Drosophila dorsal thorax and show how the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed PCP pathway controls morphogenesis. We found that the proto-cadherin(More)
Because of the resemblance of many epithelial tissues to densely packed soap bubbles, it has been suggested that surface minimization, which drives soap bubble packing, could be governing cell packing as well. We test this by modeling the shape of the cells in a Drosophila retina ommatidium. We use the observed configurations and shapes in wild-type flies,(More)
Planar cell rearrangements control epithelial tissue morphogenesis and cellular pattern formation. They lead to the formation of new junctions whose length and stability determine the cellular pattern of tissues. Here, we show that during Drosophila wing development the loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN disrupts cell rearrangements by preventing the(More)
Tissue specificity of cell adhesion was directly characterized in a unit cell interaction using a novel laser trapping cell manipulator in combination with a fixed micropipet. We quantified the adhesive specificity of endodermal and ectodermal epithelial cells from Hydra, which are known to sort out within hours after being dissociated and then randomly(More)
Development, homeostasis and regeneration of tissues result from a complex combination of genetics and mechanics, and progresses in the former have been quicker than in the latter. Measurements of in situ forces and stresses appear to be increasingly important to delineate the role of mechanics in development. We review here several emerging techniques:(More)
The understanding of morphogenesis in living organisms has been renewed by tremendous progress in experimental techniques that provide access to cell scale, quantitative information both on the shapes of cells within tissues and on the genes being expressed. This information suggests that our understanding of the respective contributions of gene expression(More)
During development, epithelial tissues undergo extensive morphogenesis based on coordinated changes of cell shape and position over time. Continuum mechanics describes tissue mechanical state and shape changes in terms of strain and stress. It accounts for individual cell properties using only a few spatially averaged material parameters. To determine the(More)
When spreading onto a protein microlattice living cells spontaneously acquire simple shapes determined by the lattice geometry. This suggests that, on a lattice, living cells' shapes are in thermodynamic metastable states. Using a model at thermodynamic equilibrium we are able to reproduce the observed shapes. We build a phase diagram based on two(More)
Cell aggregates are a tool for in vitro studies of morphogenesis, cancer invasion, and tissue engineering. They respond to mechanical forces as a complex rather than simple liquid. To change an aggregate's shape, cells have to overcome energy barriers. If cell shape fluctuations are active enough, the aggregate spontaneously relaxes stresses(More)
We study the topology and geometry of two-dimensional coarsening foam with an arbitrary liquid fraction. To interpolate between the dry limit described by von Neumann's law and the wet limit described by Marqusee's equation, the relevant bubble characteristics are the Plateau border radius and a new variable: the effective number of sides. We propose an(More)