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Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are(More)
Surface conditions on Mars are currently cold and dry, with water ice unstable on the surface except near the poles. However, geologically recent glacierlike landforms have been identified in the tropics and the midlatitudes of Mars. The ice has been proposed to originate from either a subsurface reservoir or the atmosphere. We present high-resolution(More)
The recent identification of large deposits of sulphates by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on the basis of observations by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board(More)
Observations from the gamma-ray spectrometer instrument suite on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft have been interpreted as indicating the presence of vast reservoirs of near-surface ice in high latitudes of both martian hemispheres. Ice concentrations are estimated to range from 70 per cent at 60 degrees latitude to 100 per cent near the poles, possibly overlain(More)
We discuss 3D global simulations of the early martian climate that we have performed assuming a faint young Sun and denser CO 2 atmosphere. We include a self-consistent representation of the water cycle, with atmosphere–surface interactions, atmospheric transport, and the radiative effects of CO 2 and H 2 O gas and clouds taken into account. We find that(More)
Geomorphic evidence that Mars was warm enough to support flowing water about 3.8 billion years ago presents a continuing enigma that cannot be explained by conventional greenhouse warming mechanisms. Model calculations show that the surface of early Mars could have been warmed through a scattering variant of the greenhouse effect, resulting from the ability(More)
A database of statistics which describe the climate and surface environment of Mars has been constructed directly on the basis of output from multiannual integrations of two general circulation models developed jointly at Laboratoire de support from the European Space Agency. The models have been developed and validated to reproduce the main features of the(More)
The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a(More)
[1] The East Candor Interior Layered Deposit (ILD) has signatures of mono-and polyhydrated sulfate in alternating layers that give insight into the processes which formed these layered deposits and on the environmental conditions acting on them since then. We use orbital data to explore multiple hypotheses for how these deposits formed: (1) sulfate-bearing(More)
[1] In this paper, we analyze water ice occurrences at the surface of Mars using near‐ infrared observations, and we study their distribution with a climate model. Latitudes between 45°S and 50°N are considered. Data from the Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Actitité and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars are(More)