François Chappuis

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Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by tsetse flies. Almost all cases are due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is indigenous to west and central Africa. Prevalence is strongly dependent on control measures, which are often neglected(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic protozoan disease that is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Poor and neglected populations in East Africa and the Indian sub-continent are particularly affected. Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment remain key components of VL control. In addition to improved diagnostic tests, accurate and simple tests(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. DATA SOURCES Medline, citation tracking, January 1986 to December 2004. Selection criteria Original studies evaluating the direct agglutination test or the rK39 dipstick with clinical visceral leishmaniasis as target(More)
BACKGROUND Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin(More)
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense remains highly prevalent in several rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and is lethal if left untreated. Therefore, accurate tools are absolutely required for field diagnosis. For T. b. gambiense HAT, highly sensitive tests are available for serological screening but(More)
Control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is being challenged by the emergence of natural resistance against the first line of treatment, pentavalent antimonials [Sb(V)]. An insight into the mechanism of natural Sb(V) resistance is required for the development of efficient strategies to monitor the emergence and spreading of Sb(V) resistance in countries where(More)
Current available data on snake bites in Nepal are based solely on hospital statistics. This community-based study aimed at evaluating the impact of snake bites and determining the risk factors associated with a fatal outcome in southeastern Nepal. A total of 1,817 households, selected by a random proportionate sampling method, were visited by trained field(More)
Fatal if untreated, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness) afflicts an estimated 50,000–70,000 people each year [1], all in sub-Saharan Africa, with only a minority of cases (nearly 12,000 in 2008) being reported [2]. HAT is one of four neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as requiring(More)
We compared the validity of pancytopenia, the formol-gel test (FGT), the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), the direct agglutination test (DAT), and the rK39 dipstick test as diagnostic criteria for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Nepal. Between September 2000 and January 2002, 310 clinical suspects had a bone marrow aspirate, and if negative, a(More)
Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species(More)