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This satellite mission will use new algorithms to try to forecast weather and estimate climate change from satellite measurements of the Earth's surface. ABSTRACT | It is now well understood that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) are required to improve meteorological and climate predictions. These two quantities are not yet available(More)
the 1400–1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the atmosphere, and hence the instrument probes the earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, to the sea surface salinity over ocean. The(More)
A physical algorithm is developed to solve the radiative transfer problem in the solar reflective spectral domain. This new code, Advanced Modeling of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Inhomogeneous Surfaces (AMARTIS), takes into account the relief, the spatial heterogeneity, and the bidirectional reflectances of ground surfaces. The resolution method(More)
Global temporal composites of surface reflectances are among the most commonly used products of wide field-of-view satellite-borne instruments such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and VEGETATION. The multi-temporal and spatial consistencies of these composites are key(More)
An algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method is developed to solve the radiative transfer equation in the reflective domain (0.4-4 microm) of the solar spectrum over rugged terrain. This algorithm takes into account relief, spatial heterogeneity, and ground bidirectional reflectance. The method permits the computation of irradiance components at ground(More)
Current vegetation indices are normally computed with directional spectral reflectances and are subjected to many external perturbations such as soil background variations, atmospheric conditions, geometric registration, and especially sensor viewing geometry. Subsequent use of these indices to estimate vegetation amounts would result in substantial(More)