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BACKGROUND Dynamic action of anesthetic agents was compared at cortical and subcortical levels during induction of anesthesia. Unconsciousness involved the cortical brain but suppression of movement in response to noxious stimuli was mediated through subcortical structures. METHODS Twenty-five patients with Parkinson disease, previously implanted with a(More)
Simulation has become essential in all situations where reality was too risky, too expensive, difficult to manage or inaccessible. In anaesthesia, the low rate of accidents and incidents, as well as the necessity to assure patient's safety, limit education and training in crisis management. The progress in data processing allowed the development of(More)
The main goal at the acute phase of head injury is to prevent a decrease in blood pressure, which promotes cerebral ischemia. Volume loading is therefore frequently indicated. A normal or increased plasma osmolarity should be maintained. Thus hypotonic fluids should be avoided. Hyperglycaemia is also a risk factor for brain injury and glucose use has to be(More)
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