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In order to compare the frontal cortex of rat and macaque monkey, cortical and subcortical afferents to subdivisions of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) in the rat were analyzed with fluorescent retrograde tracers. In addition to afferent inputs common to the whole MFC, each subdivision of the MFC has a specific pattern of afferent connections. The dorsally(More)
Several subunits of the glutamate receptor of the AMPA subtype have been cloned recently. These subunits, named GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4, exist as two splicing variants (flip and flop). We have determined the subset of AMPA receptor subunits expressed by single cerebellar Purkinje cells in culture. This was achieved by combining whole-cell patch-clamp(More)
1. CB-1 cannabinoid receptors are strongly expressed in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. We have analysed, in patch-clamped Purkinje cells (PCs) in rat cerebellar slices, the effect of the selective CB-1 agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940 and of the selective CB-1 antagonist SR141716-A on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity.(More)
In the past decade there have been advances in understanding the cellular mechanisms of the long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum. This review first summarizes current views on mechanisms involved in LTD induction, from activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, of ionotropic (AMPA)(More)
The diversity of known glutamate-gated channels has been markedly increased by the discovery of multiple subunits and their spliced and edited variants. These subunits can potentially form different oligomeric complexes with diverging properties. A crucial question is therefore to determine the actual subunit composition of naturally occurring glutamate(More)
Retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORalpha) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. To study its physiological role we generated null-mutant mice by targeted insertion of a lacZ reporter gene encoding the enzyme beta-galactosidase. In heterozygous RORalpha+/- mice we found beta-galactosidase activity, indicative of RORalpha protein(More)
In patch-clamped Purkinje cells (PCs), bath application of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) prevents induction of long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fibre (PF)-mediated EPSPs by a pairing protocol between Ca2+ spike firing and PF stimulation whereas bath application of(More)
The glutamate receptor channels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype are composed of different subunits named NR1 and NR2A-D. These subunits can combine in different oligomers with diverging properties and their expression is developmentally regulated. We have used rat cerebellar slice cultures to test the involvement of bioelectrical activity and(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum has been the first established example of enduring decrease of synaptic efficacy in the central nervous system. This review focuses on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Thus, at the level of the postsynaptic membranes of(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses occurs when these synapses are activated in conjunction with direct activation of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels of PCs. In the present study, we have used Aniracetam to test whether the expression of LTD at PF-PC synapses is due to a genuine(More)