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The scarcity of usable nitrogen frequently limits plant growth. A tight metabolic association with rhizobial bacteria allows legumes to obtain nitrogen compounds by bacterial reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonium (NH4+). We present here the annotated DNA sequence of the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the symbiont of alfalfa. The tripartite(More)
The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti contains three replicons: pSymA, pSymB, and the chromosome. We report here the complete 1,354,226-nt sequence of pSymA. In addition to a large fraction of the genes known to be specifically involved in symbiosis, pSymA contains genes likely to be involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism,(More)
Symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of root nodules where bacteria in the infected plant cells are converted into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Nodules with a persistent meristem are indeterminate, whereas nodules without meristem are determinate. The symbiotic plant cells in both nodule types are polyploid because of(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti is an alpha-proteobacterium that forms agronomically important N(2)-fixing root nodules in legumes. We report here the complete sequence of the largest constituent of its genome, a 62.7% GC-rich 3,654,135-bp circular chromosome. Annotation allowed assignment of a function to 59% of the 3,341 predicted protein-coding ORFs, the rest(More)
As part of the European Sinorhizobium meliloti (strain 1021) chromosome sequencing project, four genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have been constructed, one of which was mainly used for chromosome mapping. This library consists of 1,824 clones with an average insert size of 80 kilobases and represents approximately 20-fold total(More)
Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be(More)
Small untranslated RNAs (sRNAs) seem to be far more abundant than previously believed. The number of sRNAs confirmed in E. coli through various approaches is above 70, with several hundred more sRNA candidate genes under biological validation. Although the total number of sRNAs in any one species is still unclear, their importance in cellular processes has(More)
Sequencing of the Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 genome led to the detection of 6204 open reading frames, 41 % of which have no hypothetical function. To help annotate this genome, a transcriptome analysis was carried out with a dedicated microarray consisting of 146 genes belonging to three different classes: (i) no hypothetical function; (ii)(More)
To facilitate sequencing of the Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 pSyma megaplasmid, a high-resolution map was constructed by ordering 113 overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome clones with 192 markers. The 157 anonymous sequence tagged site markers (81,072 bases) reveal hypothetical functions encoded by the replicon.
tmRNA (ssrA) in Sinorhizobium meliloti is a small RNA annotated by homology with the Bradyrhizobium japonicum sra molecule. Here, this molecule is described in Sinorhizobium meliloti as a model for such molecules in Alphaproteobacteria subgroup-2. Northern blot analysis and mapping of both 5' and 3' ends of this tmRNA allow the identification of two pieces:(More)