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OBJECTIVES Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder that is invariably fatal. NP-C diagnosis can be delayed for years due to heterogeneous presentation; adult-onset NP-C can be particularly difficult to diagnose. We developed a Suspicion Index tool, ranking specific symptoms within and across(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces apoptosis of several cell types in the central nervous system through its low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). To test the effect of NGF on embryonic motoneuron survival, we developed an organotypic culture system which allowed the in vitro development of intact embryonic(More)
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, progressive, irreversible disease leading to disabling neurological manifestations and premature death. The estimated disease incidence is 1:120,000 live births, but this likely represents an underestimate, as the disease may be under-diagnosed due to its highly heterogeneous presentation. NP-C is characterised(More)
OBJECTIVE Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is defined by FMR1 premutation, cerebellar ataxia, intentional tremor, and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) hyperintensities. We delineate the clinical, neurophysiologic, and morphologic characteristics of FXTAS. METHODS Clinical, morphologic (brain MRI, (123)I-ioflupane SPECT), and(More)
BACKGROUND Mutant mouse models suggest that the chloride channel ClC-2 has functions in ion and water homoeostasis, but this has not been confirmed in human beings. We aimed to define novel disorders characterised by distinct patterns of MRI abnormalities in patients with leukoencephalopathies of unknown origin, and to identify the genes mutated in these(More)
Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant(More)
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal neurovisceral lipid storage disease of autosomal inheritance resulting from mutations in either the NPC1 (95% of families) or NPC2 gene. The encoded proteins appear to be involved in lysosomal/late endosomal transport of cholesterol, glycolipids and other molecules but their exact function is still unknown. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the first 2 European cases of biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease and novel SLC19A3 mutations. DESIGN Case reports. SETTING University hospital. Patients A 33-year-old man and his 29-year-old sister, both of Portuguese ancestry, presented with recurrent episodes of encephalopathy. Between episodes patients exhibited generalized(More)
Catatonia is an infrequent but severe condition in young people. Organic diseases may be associated and need to be investigated though no specific recommendations and guidelines are available. We extensively reviewed the literature of all the cases of organic catatonia in children and adolescents from January 1969 to June 2007. We screened socio-demographic(More)