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Recently discovered bacterial homologues of eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, such as the Gloeobacter violaceus receptor (GLIC), are increasingly used as structural and functional models of signal transduction in the nervous system. Here we present a one-microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulation of the GLIC channel pH stimulated gating(More)
To understand the molecular mechanism of ion permeation in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGIC), we solved the structure of an open form of GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC, at 2.4 Å. Anomalous diffraction data were used to place bound anions and cations. This reveals ordered water molecules at the level of two rings of hydroxylated residues (named Ser6'(More)
The Iberian, Italian or Balkan peninsulas have been considered as refugia for numerous mammalian species in response to Quaternary climatic fluctuations in Europe. In addition to this 'southerly refugial model', northern refugia have also been described notably for generalist and cold-tolerant species. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of(More)
Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family mediate fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system. The molecular processes of neurotransmitter binding, subsequent opening of the ion channel and ion permeation remain poorly understood. Here we present the X-ray structure of a mammalian Cys-loop receptor, the mouse serotonin(More)
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels mediate fast chemical transmission of nerve signals. The structure of a bacterial proton-gated homolog has been established in its open and locally closed conformations at acidic pH. Here we report its crystal structure at neutral pH, thereby providing the X-ray structures of the two end-points of the gating mechanism in(More)
Orthologs of the pentameric receptor channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems have been found in several bacterial species and in a single archaea genus. Recent X-ray structures of bacterial and invertebrate pentameric receptors point to a striking conservation of the structural features within the whole(More)
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels mediate signal transduction through conformational transitions between closed-pore and open-pore states. To stabilize a closed conformation of GLIC, a bacterial proton-gated homolog from Gloeobacter violaceus whose open structure is known, we separately generated either four cross-links or two single mutations. We found(More)
Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques are becoming more and more useful for structural biologists and biochemists, thanks to better access to dedicated synchrotron beamlines, better detectors and the relative easiness of sample preparation. The ability to compute the theoretical SAXS profile of a given structural model, and to compare this profile(More)
Amyloid proteins aggregate into polymorphic fibrils that damage tissues of the brain, nerves, and heart. Experimental and computational studies have examined the structural basis and the nucleation of short fibrils, but the ability to predict and precisely quantify the stability of larger aggregates has remained elusive. We established a complete(More)
Eukaryotic DNA polymerase mu of the PolX family can promote the association of the two 3'-protruding ends of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) being repaired (DNA synapsis) even in the absence of the core non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) machinery. Here, we show that terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT), a closely related PolX involved in V(D)J(More)