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AIMS This study aimed at comparing the cerebral cytotoxicity of ethanol and its main metabolite acetaldehyde after acute or chronic exposures of rat astrocytes in primary culture. METHODS Cytotoxicity was evaluated on the cell reduction of viability (MTT reduction test) and on the characterization of DNA damage by single cell gel electrophoresis (or comet(More)
The central nervous system is vulnerable to oxidative stress, especially when a toxicant can modify the physiological balance between anti- and pro-oxidant mechanisms. Among brain cells, astrocytes seem less vulnerable than neurons, but their impairment can dramatically affect neurons because of their protective role toward neurons. Ethanol is able to(More)
Free radicals species generation during ethanol metabolism is implicated in ethanol-induced toxicity. Findings from clinical studies have clearly established the association between alcohol intake and nutritional deficiency. Astrocytes are able to promote neuronal survival against different lethal injuries involved in ethanol-induced toxicity. We therefore(More)
AIMS Ethanol can create progressive neuropathological and functional alterations of neurones. However, the influence of exposure duration is still debated. It is difficult to specify the level of alcohol consumption leading to alcohol-induced brain damage. Moreover, the mechanism of toxicity is assumed to combine direct and metabolically induced effects,(More)
Ethanol induces brain injury by a mechanism that remains partly unknown. Mitochondria play a key role in cell death processes, notably through the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). Here, we tested the effect of ethanol and PTP inhibitors on mitochondrial physiology and cell viability both in vitro and in vivo. Direct addition of ethanol up(More)
Hyperglycemia is detrimental to β-cell viability, playing a major role in the progression of β-cell loss in diabetes mellitus. The permeability transition pore (PTP) is a mitochondrial channel involved in cell death. Recent evidence suggests that PTP inhibitors prevent hyperglycemia-induced cell death in human endothelial cells. In this work, we have(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in dietary fats. Most studies evaluating PCB effects have been conducted with a single compound or a mixture of PCBs given as a single acute dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo PCB toxicity in a realistic model of exposure: a low daily dose of PCBs (twice(More)
Resveratrol is attracting much interest because of its potential to decrease body weight and increase life span, influencing liver and muscle function by increasing mitochondrial mass and energy expenditure. Even though resveratrol was already shown to reduce the adipose tissue mass in animal models, its effects on mitochondrial mass and network structure(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase (BCK) cooperate under energy stress to compensate for loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by either stimulating ATP-generating and inhibiting ATP-consuming pathways, or by direct ATP regeneration from phosphocreatine, respectively. Here we report on AMPK-dependent phosphorylation(More)
Ethanol consumption has long been associated with brain damage. However, the mechanism underlying this deleterious effect remains unclear. Among different hypotheses, acetaldehyde is regarded by certain authors as playing a major role in the expression of ethanol toxicity, but there are still some uncertainties about the exact nature of its implication. We(More)