Frédéric L Chédin

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CpG islands (CGIs) function as promoters for approximately 60% of human genes. Most of these elements remain protected from CpG methylation, a prevalent epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Here, we report that methylation-resistant CGI promoters are characterized by significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines(More)
Dnmt3L is required for the establishment of maternal methylation imprints at imprinting centers (ICs). Dnmt3L, however, lacks the conserved catalytic domain common to DNA methyltransferases. In an attempt to define its function, we coexpressed DNMT3L with each of the two known de novo methyltransferases, Dnmt3a and DNMT3B, in human cells and monitored de(More)
The mechanism responsible for immunoglobulin class switch recombination is unknown. Previous work has shown that class switch sequences have the unusual property of forming RNA-DNA hybrids when transcribed in vitro. Here we show that the RNA-DNA hybrid structure that forms in vitro is an R-loop with a displaced guanine (G)-rich strand that is(More)
The deposition of DNA methylation at promoters of transposons, X-linked genes, imprinted genes, and other lineage-specific genes is clearly associated with long-term transcriptional silencing. Thus, DNA methylation represents a key layer of epigenetic information in mammals that is required for embryonic development, germline differentiation, and, as shown(More)
Homologous recombination in Bacillus subtilis requires the product of the addA and addB genes, the AddAB enzyme. This enzyme, which is both a helicase and a powerful nuclease, is thought to be the counterpart of the Escherichia coli RecBCD enzyme. From this analogy, it is expected that the nuclease activity of AddAB can be downregulated by a specific DNA(More)
The de novo methyltransferase-like protein, DNMT3L, is required for methylation of imprinted genes in germ cells. Although enzymatically inactive, human DNMT3L was shown to act as a general stimulatory factor for de novo methylation by murine Dnmt3a. Several isoforms of DNMT3A and DNMT3B with development-stage and tissue-specific expression patterns have(More)
Expansion of a trinucleotide (CGG) repeat element within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the human FMR1 gene is responsible for a number of heritable disorders operating through distinct pathogenic mechanisms: gene silencing for fragile X syndrome (>200 CGG) and RNA toxic gain-of-function for FXTAS (∼ 55-200 CGG). Existing models have focused almost(More)
Strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines and cytosines, measured by GC skew, predisposes DNA sequences toward R-loop formation upon transcription. Previous work revealed that GC skew and R-loop formation associate with a core set of unmethylated CpG island (CGI) promoters in the human genome. Here, we show that GC skew can distinguish four classes(More)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are oppositely imprinted autism-spectrum disorders with known genetic bases, but complex epigenetic mechanisms underlie their pathogenesis. The PWS/AS locus on 15q11-q13 is regulated by an imprinting control region that is maternally methylated and silenced. The PWS imprinting control region is the(More)
R-loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures formed upon annealing of an RNA strand to one strand of duplex DNA. We profiled R-loops using a high-resolution, strand-specific methodology in human and mouse cell types. R-loops are prevalent, collectively occupying up to 5% of mammalian genomes. R-loop formation occurs over conserved genic hotspots such(More)