Frédéric Fabre

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Plant viruses are submitted to narrow population bottlenecks both during infection of their hosts and during horizontal transmission between host individuals. The size of bottlenecks exerted on virus populations during plant invasion has been estimated in a few pathosystems but is not addressed yet for horizontal transmission. Using competition for aphid(More)
In this review, after giving some figures on the economic impact of aphids on agricultural production, we describe the different mechanisms leading to yield losses (direct damage due to sieve drain and plant reaction, indirect damage, often the most important, due to virus transmission). Then, after a history of chemical control and of its limits, the main(More)
Many agricultural landscapes are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity and fragmentation. Landscape ecology focuses on the influence of habitat heterogeneity in space and time on ecological processes. Landscape epidemiology aims at applying concepts and approaches originating from landscape ecology to the study of pathogen dynamics at the(More)
One of the major factors determining the incidence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) on autumn-sown cereals is the viruliferous state of immigrant winged aphids. This variable is assessed routinely using the enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). However, the threshold for virus detection by ELISA can lead to false negative results for aphids carrying(More)
SUMMARY Understanding the factors driving pathogen emergence and re-emergence is a major challenge, particularly in agriculture, where the use of resistant plant cultivars imposes strong selective pressures on plant pathogen populations and leads frequently to 'resistance breakdown'. Presently, durable resistances are only identified after a long period of(More)
In order to select for quantitative plant resistance to pathogens, high throughput approaches that can precisely quantify disease severity are needed. Automation and use of calibrated image analysis should provide more accurate, objective and faster analyses than visual assessments. In contrast to conventional visible imaging, chlorophyll fluorescence(More)
To establish a baseline sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea to pyrrolnitrin, an antibiotic produced by several biological control agents, 204 isolates were tested for sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin using a spore germination assay. The results showed that the isolates exhibited a wide range of sensitivity to pyrrolnitrin, with an 8.4-fold difference in EC50(More)
In vitro reverse transcription of a mixture of total RNA from plants infected with the I17F or R strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), representative of subgroups IA and II, respectively, results in viral cDNA populations including rare recombinant RNA 3 molecules, some of which also have point mutations. The biological properties of 17 recombinants in(More)
The emergence of new genotypes of parasites involves several evolutionary, epidemiological and ecological processes whose individual effects and interactions are difficult to disentangle using experimental approaches. Here, a model is proposed to investigate how these processes lead to the emergence of plant viral genotypes breaking down qualitative(More)