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All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we(More)
Progression of hematologic malignancies is strongly dependent on bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells. Expression of members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family by stromal cells is a central event during these interactions. However, although several studies have focused on the mechanisms responsible for induction of MMP(More)
The influence of pupil size, lens centration, and translation on multifocal contact lens performance suggests that these parameters should be accounted for in the optical design of presbyopic contact lenses. The purpose of the present article is to complete the existing experimental data with clinical measurements of pupil diameter and lens position(More)
BACKGROUND In optical systems, it is usual to compensate for longitudinal spherical aberration. In order to increase image quality, lens surfaces can be made aspheric to bring all object light rays into focus at the image plane. Theoretically, soft contact lenses with high power and spherical surfaces show significant amounts of spherical aberration. The(More)
Ever since Darwin, the familiar genealogical pattern known as the Tree of Life (TOL) has been prominent in evolutionary thinking and has dominated not only systematics, but also the analysis of the units of evolution. However, recent findings indicate that the evolution of DNA, especially in prokaryotes and such DNA vehicles as viruses and plasmids, does(More)
The hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse is a model for human X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). To test the hypothesis of an abnormal osteoblast function in XLH, periostea and osteoblasts isolated from normal and Hyp mice were transplanted im into normal and mutant mice. The thickness of the osteoid seams at the periphery of the bone nodules and the osteoid volume(More)
Some metagenomic studies have suggested that less than 10% of the cells that comprise our bodies are Homo sapiens cells. The remaining 90% are bacterial cells. The description of this so-called human microbiome is of great interest and importance for several reasons. For one, it helps us redefine what a biological individual is. We suggest that a human(More)
Following Wallace's suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer's expression "survival of the fittest". Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term 'fitness' is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in(More)
P19 embryonic carcinoma cells resemble normal embryonic stem (ES) cells. They generate cardiac and skeletal myocytes in response to retinoic acid (RA) or oxytocin (OT). RA treatment followed by exposure to triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin induces ES cells differentiation into adipocytes and skeletomyocytes. On the other hand, OT (10(-7) M) was reported to(More)