Frédéric Bouchard

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All evolutionary biologists are familiar with evolutionary units that evolve by vertical descent in a tree-like fashion in single lineages. However, many other kinds of processes contribute to evolutionary diversity. In vertical descent, the genetic material of a particular evolutionary unit is propagated by replication inside its own lineage. In what we(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the human NCI-N87 cell line as a model for gastric permeability drug studies under pH conditions of the stomach. The optimal conditions that led NCI-N87 cells to form a typical differentiated gastric epithelial barrier were a seeding density of 2.5 × 10⁵ cells/cm² on porous inserts and growth in serum-complemented(More)
Ever since Darwin, the familiar genealogical pattern known as the Tree of Life (TOL) has been prominent in evolutionary thinking and has dominated not only systematics, but also the analysis of the units of evolution. However, recent findings indicate that the evolution of DNA, especially in prokaryotes and such DNA vehicles as viruses and plasmids, does(More)
Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer(More)
The hypophosphatemic (Hyp) mouse is a model for human X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). To test the hypothesis of an abnormal osteoblast function in XLH, periostea and osteoblasts isolated from normal and Hyp mice were transplanted im into normal and mutant mice. The thickness of the osteoid seams at the periphery of the bone nodules and the osteoid volume(More)
Progression of hematologic malignancies is strongly dependent on bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells. Expression of members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family by stromal cells is a central event during these interactions. However, although several studies have focused on the mechanisms responsible for induction of MMP(More)
P19 embryonic carcinoma cells resemble normal embryonic stem (ES) cells. They generate cardiac and skeletal myocytes in response to retinoic acid (RA) or oxytocin (OT). RA treatment followed by exposure to triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin induces ES cells differentiation into adipocytes and skeletomyocytes. On the other hand, OT (10(-7) M) was reported to(More)
Following Wallace's suggestion, Darwin framed his theory using Spencer's expression "survival of the fittest". Since then, fitness occupies a significant place in the conventional understanding of Darwinism, even though the explicit meaning of the term 'fitness' is rarely stated. In this paper I examine some of the different roles that fitness has played in(More)
Some metagenomic studies have suggested that less than 10% of the cells that comprise our bodies are Homo sapiens cells. The remaining 90% are bacterial cells. The description of this so-called human microbiome is of great interest and importance for several reasons. For one, it helps us redefine what a biological individual is. We suggest that a human(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic development. It regulates cell differentiation by activating nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid-X receptors (RXR), which both control gene expression. In addition, atRA could act in the cytoplasm by modulating the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases(More)