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Leaf photosynthesis (A) is limited by mesophyll conductance (g(m)), which is influenced by both leaf structure and the environment. Previous studies have indicated that the upper bound for g(m) declines as leaf dry mass per area (LMA, an indicator of leaf structure) increases, extrapolating to zero at a LMA of about 240 g m(-2). No data exist on g(m) and(More)
The mammary gland undergoes significant remodeling during pregnancy and lactation, which is fuelled by controlled mammary stem cell (MaSC) proliferation. The scarcity of human lactating breast tissue specimens and the low numbers and quiescent state of MaSCs in the resting breast have hindered understanding of both normal MaSC dynamics and the molecular(More)
The pregnancy-lactation cycle (PLC) is a period in which the breast is transformed from a less-developed, nonfunctional organ into a mature, milk-producing gland that has evolved to meet the nutritional, developmental, and immune protection needs of the newborn. Cessation of lactation initiates a process whereby the breast reverts to a resting state until(More)
Breast cancers with lactating features, some of which are associated with pregnancy and lactation, are often poorly differentiated, lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression and have high mortality. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that drive uncontrolled cell proliferation in these tumors and confer lactating(More)
Reflecting millions of years of adaptation and optimization, milk is unique to the species that produces it and for the young of which it is intended, with large variations in both lactation strategies and milk composition existing among different mammalian species. Despite this, milk has the consistent function of providing nourishment, protection, and(More)
Large inter- and intra-individual variations exist in breastmilk composition, yet factors associated with these variations in the short-term are not well understood. In this study, the effects of breastfeeding on breastmilk cellular and biochemical content were examined. Serial breastmilk samples (∼5 mL) were collected from both breasts of breastfeeding(More)
Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy. The current initial standard of care consists of maximal safe surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite optimal therapy, median survival is ~15 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients, and <6 months for patients with(More)
Mammary glands are unique to mammals, with the specific function of synthesizing, secreting, and delivering milk to the newborn. Given this function, it is only during a pregnancy/lactation cycle that the gland reaches a mature developmental state via hormonal influences at the cellular level that effect drastic modifications in the micro- and macro-anatomy(More)
Breastfeeding has been regarded first and foremost as a means of nutrition for infants, providing essential components for their unique growth and developmental requirements. However, breast milk is also rich in immunologic factors, highlighting its importance as a mediator of protection. In accordance with its evolutionary origin, the mammary gland offers(More)
Leaf dry mass per area (LMA) is a composite parameter relating to a suite of structural traits that have the potential to influence photosynthesis. However, the extent to which each of these traits contributes to variation in LMA and photosynthetic rates is not well understood, especially at the high end of the LMA spectrum. In this study, the genus Banksia(More)