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BACKGROUND Injection site infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) have been associated with serious morbidity and health service costs in North America. This study explores the frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections among IDUs in England. METHODS Unlinked-anonymous survey during 2003/05 recruiting IDUs from community(More)
Public Health England's mission is to protect and improve the nation's health and to address inequalities through working with national and local government, the NHS, industry and the voluntary and community sector. PHE is an operationally autonomous executive agency of the Department of Health. You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of(More)
Total quality in laboratory medicine should be defined as the guarantee that each activity throughout the total testing process is correctly performed, providing valuable medical decision-making and effective patient care. In the past decades, a 10-fold reduction in the analytical error rate has been achieved thanks to improvements in both reliability and(More)
Changes in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence from 1992 to 2006 were examined by using 24,311 records from unlinked anonymous surveillance of injecting drug users in England and Wales. Bayesian logistic regression was used to estimate annual prevalence, accounting for changing recruitment patterns (age, gender, injecting duration, geographic region,(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe drug use, sexual risks and the prevalence of blood-borne viral infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). DESIGN A voluntary unlinked-anonymous cross-sectional biobehavioural survey. SETTING 19 needle and syringe programmes across England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS 395 men who had injected IPEDs.(More)
Since 2000 in the United Kingdom, infections caused by spore-forming bacteria have been associated with increasing illness and death among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To assess temporal and geographic trends in these illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi infection, and anthrax), we compared rates across England and Scotland for 2000-2009.(More)
Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation's health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities. It does this through world-class science, knowledge and intelligence, advocacy, partnerships and the delivery of specialist public health services. PHE is an operationally autonomous executive agency of the Department of Health. You may(More)
BACKGROUND Infection risks among people who inject drugs (PWID) are widely recognized, but few studies have focused on image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). Globally, concern about IPED injection has increased and, in the United Kingdom, IPED injectors have become the largest group using Needle and Syringe Programmes. Blood-borne virus prevalence(More)
Responses to injecting drug use have changed focus over the last 20 years. Prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in England and Wales were examined in relation to these changes. A voluntary unlinked-anonymous surveillance study obtained a biological sample and questionnaire data from PWID through(More)