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Before fertilization can occur, mammalian sperm must undergo capacitation, a process that requires a cyclic AMP-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. To identify proteins phosphorylated during capacitation, two-dimensional gel analysis coupled to anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblots and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was performed. Among the protein(More)
During meiosis, cohesins--protein complexes that hold sister chromatids together--are lost from chromosomes in a step-wise manner. Loss of cohesins from chromosome arms is necessary for homologous chromosomes to segregate during meiosis I. Retention of cohesins around centromeres until meiosis II is required for the accurate segregation of sister(More)
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) depends on the long noncoding RNA Xist and its recruitment of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC2 is also targeted to other sites throughout the genome to effect transcriptional repression. Using XCI as a model, we apply an unbiased proteomics approach to isolate Xist and PRC2 regulators and identified ATRX. ATRX(More)
14-3-3 proteins are crucial in a wide variety of cellular responses including cell cycle progression, DNA damage checkpoints and apoptosis. One particular 14-3-3 isoform, sigma, is a p53-responsive gene, the function of which is frequently lost in human tumours, including breast and prostate cancers as a result of either hypermethylation of the 14-3-3sigma(More)
Mcl-1 is a member of the Bcl2-related protein family that is a critical mediator of cell survival. Exposure of cells to stress causes inhibition of Mcl-1 mRNA translation and rapid destruction of Mcl-1 protein by proteasomal degradation mediated by a phosphodegron created by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) phosphorylation of Mcl-1. Here we demonstrate(More)
Protein kinases are coded by more than 2,000 genes and thus constitute the largest single enzyme family in the human genome. Most cellular processes are in fact regulated by the reversible phosphorylation of proteins on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. At least 30% of all proteins are thought to contain covalently bound phosphate. Despite the(More)
Ligand binding to cell surface receptors initiates a cascade of signaling events regulated by dynamic phosphorylation events on a multitude of pathway proteins. Quantitative features, including intensity, timing, and duration of phosphorylation of particular residues, may play a role in determining cellular response, but experimental data required for(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults and remains incurable despite multimodal intensive treatment regimens. EGFRvIII is a truncated extracellular mutant of the EGF receptor (EGFR) commonly found in GBMs that confers enhanced tumorigenic behavior. To gain a molecular understanding of the mechanisms by which EGFRvIII(More)
Activation of signal transduction kinase cascades has been shown to alter androgen receptor (AR) activity. Although it has been suggested that changes in AR phosphorylation might be directly responsible, the basal and regulated phosphorylations of the AR have not been fully determined. We have identified the major sites of AR phosphorylation on ARs(More)
The insulin-signaling network regulates blood glucose levels, controls metabolism, and when dysregulated, may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. Although the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in this network is clear, only a limited number of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified. To address this issue and establish(More)