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Myosins are motor proteins in cells. They move along actin by changing shape after making stereospecific interactions with the actin subunits. As these are arranged helically, a succession of steps will follow a helical path. However, if the myosin heads are long enough to span the actin helical repeat (approximately 36 nm), linear motion is possible.(More)
Advanced glycosylation end products of proteins (AGEs) are nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins which accumulate in vascular tissue in aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A approximately 35-kDa polypeptide with a unique NH2-terminal sequence has been isolated from bovine lung and found to be present on the surface of endothelial cells where it(More)
Gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) involves a coordinated action of ATP on two nucleotide binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). Previous studies using nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues and NBD mutant CFTR have suggested that nucleotide hydrolysis at NBD1 is required for opening of the channel, while hydrolysis of nucleotides at(More)
Human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes alpha3 beta2, alpha3 beta2 alpha5, alpha3 beta4, and alpha3 beta4 alpha5 were stably expressed in cells derived from the human embryonic kidney cell line 293. alpha3 beta4 AChRs were found in prominent 2-micrometer patches on the cell surface, whereas most alpha3 beta2 AChRs were more diffusely(More)
Brain circuits process information through specialized neuronal subclasses interacting within a network. Revealing their interplay requires activating specific cells while monitoring others in a functioning circuit. Here we use a new platform for two-way light-based circuit interrogation in visual cortex in vivo to show the computational implications of(More)
Recombinant Escherichia coli XL1-Blue harboring a high-copy-number plasmid containing the Alcaligenes eutrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis genes could efficiently synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in a complex medium containing yeast extract and tryptone but not in a defined medium. One of the reasons for the reduced PHB production in a defined(More)
Four transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants were generated that expressed a murine monoclonal antibody kappa chain, a hybrid immunoglobulin A-G heavy chain, a murine joining chain, and a rabbit secretory component, respectively. Successive sexual crosses between these plants and filial recombinants resulted in plants that expressed all four protein chains(More)
Pharmacological properties of the (+)- and (-)-isomers of synthetic epibatidine, exo-2-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-7-azabicyclo-[2.2.1]heptane, were compared with nicotine and acetylcholine on several subtypes of chicken and human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Both isomers of epibatidine behaved as extremely potent full agonists on chicken (alpha 3(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors formed from combinations of alpha3, beta2, beta4, and alpha5 subunits are found in chicken ciliary ganglion neurons and some human neuroblastoma cell lines. We studied the co-expression of various combinations of cloned human alpha3, beta2, beta4, and alpha5 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. Expression on the surface membrane(More)