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Epidemiologic studies support an association among elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), increased respiratory symptoms, and alterations in lung function. To determine if low level NO2 inhalation potentiates exercise-induced bronchospasm, 15 asthmatic subjects, defined by airway constriction with cold air provocation, inhaled 0.30 ppm (560(More)
Ultrafine particles (diameter < 100 nm) may be important in the health effects of air pollution, in part because of their predicted high respiratory deposition. However, there are few measurements of ultrafine particle deposition during spontaneous breathing. The fractional deposition for the total respiratory tract of ultrafine carbon particles (count(More)
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This study examined the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure on airway inflammation, blood cells, and antiviral respiratory defense. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to air and 0.6 and 1.5 ppm NO(2) for 3 h with intermittent moderate exercise. Phlebotomy and bronchoscopy were performed 3.5 h after each exposure, and(More)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a product of combustion that has become recognized as a significant component of indoor air in some homes. Despite extensive study, it remains unresolved whether exposures to low levels of NO2 affect airway function or reactivity. These studies were designed to assess effects of various levels and patterns of NO2 exposure on(More)
This paper reports on a usability evaluation of BoBIs (Back-of-the-book Indexes) as searching and browsing tools in an e-book environment. This study employed a task-based approach and within-subject design. The retrieval performance of a BoBI was compared with a ToC and Full-Text Search tool in terms of their respective effectiveness and efficiency for(More)