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BACKGROUND Recent reports showed that functional control of HIV-1 infection for a prolonged time is possible by early antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, its underlying mechanism needs to be studied with a suitable animal model. Recently, humanized-BLT (bone marrow, liver, and thymus) mouse (hu-BLT) was shown to be an excellent model for studying HIV-1(More)
PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue has a large impact on public health. The PV family Papillomaviridae is organized into multiple genus based on sequential parsimony, host range, tissue(More)
The vast majority of studies with candidate immunogens based on the human immunodeficiency virus envelope (Env) have been conducted with Env proteins derived from clade B viruses isolated during chronic infection. Whether non-clade B Env protein immunogens will elicit antibodies with epitope specificities that are similar to those of antibodies elicited by(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) envelope variations that arise during disease progression in rhesus macaque model reflect changes that occur naturally in human infection. DESIGN An infant macaque was infected with SHIV-1157i, an R5 tropic clade C SHIV, that expresses a primary HIV-C envelope derived from an infected human infant and(More)
Understanding the evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope during disease progression can provide tremendous insights for vaccine development, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of non-human primate provides an ideal platform for such studies. A newly developed clade C SHIV, SHIV-1157ipd3N4, which was able(More)
Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), one of the leading cancers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Zambia. KSHV was detected in the human central nervous system (CNS) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, but tissue location and cell tropism for KSHV infection(More)
A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the(More)
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