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BACKGROUND PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue has a large impact on public health. The PV family Papillomaviridae is organized into multiple genus based on sequential parsimony, host(More)
Understanding the evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope during disease progression can provide tremendous insights for vaccine development, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of non-human primate provides an ideal platform for such studies. A newly developed clade C SHIV, SHIV-1157ipd3N4, which was able(More)
A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the(More)
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