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The effect of oral creatine supplementation on brain metabolite concentrations was investigated in gray matter, white matter, cerebellum, and thalamus of healthy young volunteers by means of quantitative localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo (2.0 T, stimulated echo acquisition mode sequence; repetition time = 6,000 ms, echo time = 20 ms,(More)
The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin(More)
BACKGROUND The creatine/creatine-phosphate system is essential for the storage and transmission of phosphate-bound energy in muscle and brain. In infants, inefficiency or failure of this metabolic pathway can impair the development of motor control and mentation. METHODS We studied and treated an infant with extrapyramidal signs who was shown--by assay(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects girls. It is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene that encodes the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In this study we correlated mutation type and location with the severity of the phenotype in 123 girls with RTT. The ability to sit, walk, speak, hand function, head(More)
Regional changes of metabolite concentrations during human brain development were assessed by quantitative localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Apart from measurements in young healthy adults, the study was based on regional spectra from 97 children who were either healthy or suffered from mental retardation, movement disorders,(More)
Monocyte/macrophage differentiation was studied in biopsy samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions obtained in the early course of the disease. Macrophages were identified by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies recognizing different macrophage-activation antigens. The number of cells stained with each antibody was related to the demyelinating(More)
We studied seroprevalence and concentrations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies in 147 pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and paired controls. The children with MS showed a near-complete seropositivity for EBV antibody against virus capsid antigen (98.6% vs 72.1% in controls, p = 0.001) but did not display serologic evidence for a recent(More)
The authors investigated the frequency and quantity of intrathecal antibody synthesis against Chlamydia pneumoniae and the presence of C pneumoniae antigen in 25 children with MS. C pneumoniae genome was present in two children. In seven children an intrathecal synthesis of C pneumoniae antibodies was detected, representing only a small part of the total(More)
Medullary respiratory neurons are influenced by a variety of neuromodulators, but there is a lack of information about the specific intracellular signal pathways involved. In this report we describe the modulatory effects of the cyclic adenosine-triphosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase and of protein kinase C pathways on voltage- and ligand-controlled(More)
Apneusis is a disturbance of respiratory rhythm characterized by severely prolonged inspiratory effort. It may occur after damage to the respiratory network within the lower brain stem and pons from an overdose of central nervous system depressants, blockade of glutamate receptors, asphyxia, hypoxia, or ischemia. Experimental studies conducted on laboratory(More)