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Dwarf males are often found in species with sedentary females, where they typically cohabit in varying degrees of intimacy. This is short of true parasitism because, in return for room and board, males provide the benefit of sperm. Sexual selection rarely seems to be an option to explain male dwarfing, whereas natural selection often can.
BACKGROUND Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a cluster of psychological and somatic symptoms during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle that disappear after the onset of menses. Behavioral differences in emotional and cognitive processing have been reported in women with PMS, and it is of particular interest whether PMS affects the… (More)
The spider's orb web provides an excellent opportunity to study the decision rules of a highly complex orientation behaviour. The behaviour is inherited, and it has evolved from laying a single line to configuring the geometrical thread pattern of the orb. The possibility that the algorithms of orb web construction may have evolved convergently adds to the… (More)