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Whereas short-term memory lasts from minutes to hours, long-term memory (LTM) can last for days or even an entire lifetime. LTM generally forms after spaced repeated training sessions and involves the regulation of gene expression, thereby implicating transcription factors in the initial steps of LTM establishment. However, the direct participation of(More)
— An anthropomorphic hand arm system using variable stiffness actuation has been developed at DLR. It is aimed to reach its human archetype regarding size, weight and performance. The main focus of our development is put on robustness, dynamic performance and dexterity. Therefore, a paradigm change from impedance controlled, but mechanically stiff joints to(More)
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— The variable stiffness actuation concept is considered to provide a human-friendly robot technology. This paper examines a joint concept called the bidirectional antagonistic joint which is a extension of antagonistic joints. A new operating mode called the helping mode is introduced, which increases the joint load range. Although the joint can not be(More)
—Anthropomorphic robots that aim to approach human performance agility and efficiency are typically highly redundant not only in their kinematics but also in actuation. Variable-impedance actuators (VIAs), used to drive many of these devices, are capable of modulating torque and impedance (stiffness and/or damping) simultaneously, continuously and(More)
— Intrinsically elastic robots, which technically implement some key characteristics of the human muskoskeletal system, have become a major research topic in nowadays robotics. These novel devices open up entirely new control approaches. They base on temporary storage of potential energy and its timed transformation into kinetic energy. In legged(More)