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BACKGROUND & AIMS The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P, and calcium channels, which control their release from extrinsic sensory neurons, have important roles in experimental colitis. We investigated the mechanisms of colitis in 2 different models, the involvement of the irritant receptor transient receptor potential of(More)
BACKGROUND Low concentrations of local anesthetics (LAs) suppress cellular excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na⁺ channels. In contrast, LAs at high concentrations can be excitatory and neurotoxic. We recently demonstrated that LA-evoked activation of sensory neurons is mediated by the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and, to a lesser extent by the irritant(More)
Anesthetic agents can induce a paradox activation and sensitization of nociceptive sensory neurons and, thus, potentially facilitate pain processing. Here we identify distinct molecular mechanisms that mediate an activation of sensory neurons by 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol), a commonly used intravenous anesthetic known to elicit intense pain upon(More)
BACKGROUND Opioids induce analgesia mainly by inhibiting synaptic transmission via G protein-coupled opioid receptors. In addition to analgesia, buprenorphine induces a pronounced antihyperalgesia and is an effective adjuvant to local anesthetics. These properties only partially apply to other opioids, and thus targets other than opioid receptors are likely(More)
BACKGROUND Irritating effects of volatile general anesthetics on tracheal nerve endings and resulting spastic reflexes in the airways are not completely understood with respect to molecular mechanisms. Neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation play an established role. METHODS The basal and stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release(More)
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