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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, interacts with LPS-binding protein and CD14, which present LPS to toll-like receptor 4 (refs 1, 2), which activates inflammatory gene expression through nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase signalling. Antibacterial defence involves(More)
The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which(More)
Information about subscriptions and ASH membership may be found online at: digital object identifier (DOIs) and date of initial publication. the indexed by PubMed from initial publication. Citations to Advance online articles must include final publication). Advance online articles are citable and establish publication priority; they are appeared in the(More)
Transient induction of the transcription factor early growth response protein-1 (EGR-1) plays a pivotal role in the transcriptional response of endothelial cells to the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which are produced by most tumors and are involved in the angiogenic switch. We(More)
Cellular senescence of normal human cells has by now far exceeded its initial role as a model system for aging research. Many reports show the accumulation of senescent cells in vivo, their effect on their microenvironment and its double-edged role as tumour suppressor and promoter. Importantly, removal of senescent cells delays the onset of age-associated(More)
Retinoids influence growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and are widely used for the management of skin diseases and for prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in predisposed patients. Here we investigated the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on KC apoptosis. When KCs were cultured in confluent monolayers for several days, they(More)
BACKGROUND Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. METHODS Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting(More)
Epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) express antimicrobial peptides as a part of the innate immune response. It has recently been shown that the culture supernatant of Escherichia coli induces the expression of S100A7c (psoriasin) in KCs and that S100A7c efficiently kills E. coli. Here we have investigated which of the microbial components triggers the(More)
OBJECTIVE Endothelial cells comprise a key component of the inflammatory response. We set out to obtain a comprehensive overview of the immediate-early to early gene expression program of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated endothelial cells and to identify novel transcription factors and regulatory elements. METHODS AND RESULTS Human umbilical vein(More)