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Autophagy is a conserved membrane transport pathway used to destroy pathogenic microbes that access the cytosol of cells. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila interferes with autophagy by delivering an effector protein, RavZ, into the host cytosol. RavZ acts by cleaving membrane-conjugated Atg8/LC3 proteins from pre-autophagosomal structures.(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is a pathogenicity factor required for effective progression to AIDS, which modulates host cell signaling pathways and T-cell receptor internalization. We have determined the crystal structure of Nef, allele SF2, in complex with an engineered SH3 domain of human Hck showing unnaturally tight binding and(More)
Tethering proteins play a key role in vesicular transport, ensuring that cargo arrives at a specific destination. The bacterial effector protein SidC and its paralog SdcA have been described as tethering factors encoded by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Here, we demonstrate that SidC proteins are important for early events unique to(More)
Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) with specificity for RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC that is frequently deleted in various tumor types. By inactivating these small GTPases, DLC1 controls actin cytoskeletal remodeling and biological processes such as cell migration and proliferation. Here we provide evidence that DLC1 binds to(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 Nef is a virulence factor that plays multiple roles during HIV replication. Recently, it has been described that Nef intersects the CD40 signalling in macrophages, leading to modification in the pattern of secreted factors that appear able to recruit, activate and render T lymphocytes susceptible to HIV infection. The engagement of CD40 by(More)
The HIV-1 Nef protein is an accessory protein of 24-27 kDa mass that mediates a multitude of effector functions in infected cells. Although not essentially required for viral replication, HIV-1 Nef exhibits stimulating potential towards disease progression to AIDS and is therefore considered a pathogenic factor in retroviridae. Here we correlate sequence(More)
Despite the fact that murine cells are not permissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, several investigators have constructed transgenic (Tg) mice to model HIV-1-induced diseases to overcome this restriction. The generation of Tg mice expressing selected HIV-1 genes revealed that Nef harbors a major disease determinant. HIV-1 Nef(More)
Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with(More)
The enzymatic activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) are strictly correlated with the dimeric forms of this vital retroviral enzyme. Accordingly, the development of inhibitors targeting the dimerization of RT represents a promising alternative antiviral strategy. Based on mutational studies, we applied a(More)
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