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The aim of this paper is to show how the P systems with replicated rewriting can be mod-eled by X-machines (also called Eilenberg machines). In the first approach, the parallel behaviour of the regions of a P system is simulated by a sequential process involving a single X-machine. This allows the application of the X-machine testing procedures in order to(More)
X-machines were proposed by Holcombe as a possible specification language and since then a number of further investigations have demonstrated that the model is intuitive and easy to use as well as general enough to cater for a wide range of applications. In particular (generalised) stream X-machines have been found to be extremely useful as a specification(More)
Although testing is a major part of software development, it rarely gets the attention it deserves from researchers, partly because its foundations are weak and ill-understood. The principal purpose of testing is to detect (and then remove) faults in a software system. However, very few of the existing methods allow the tester to make any precise statement(More)
The X-machine testing method has been developed as an application of the W-method to testing the control structure of an implementation, against a specification. The method was proven to demonstrate the equivalence of the behaviour of the two, subject to a number of conditions both a specification and an implementation are expected to satisfy, such as (1)(More)
One of the strengths of using stream X-machines to specify a system is that, under certain well defined conditions, it is possible to produce a test set that is guaranteed to determine the correctness of an implementation. However, the existing method assumes that the implementation of each processing function is proved to be correct before the actual(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Available online xxxx Keywords: Learning from queries Finite automata Automata inference Deterministic finite cover automata Learning regular languages from queries was introduced by Angluin in a seminal paper that also provides the L * algorithm. This algorithm, as well as other existing inference methods, finds the(More)
One of the great benefits of using a stream X-machine to specify a system is its associated testing method. Under certain design for test conditions, this method produces a test suite that can determine the correctness of the implementation under test (IUT), provided that the processing functions of the stream X-machine specification have been correctly(More)
A stream X-machine is a type of extended finite state machine with an associated development approach that consists of building a system from a set of trusted components. One of the great benefits of using stream X-machines for the purpose of specification is the existence of test generation techniques that produce test suites that are guaranteed to(More)