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X-machines were proposed by Holcombe as a possible specification language and since then a number of further investigations have demonstrated that the model is intuitive and easy to use as well as general enough to cater for a wide range of applications. In particular (generalised) stream X-machines have been found to be extremely useful as a specification(More)
The aim of this paper is to show how the P systems with replicated rewriting can be mod-eled by X-machines (also called Eilenberg machines). In the first approach, the parallel behaviour of the regions of a P system is simulated by a sequential process involving a single X-machine. This allows the application of the X-machine testing procedures in order to(More)
Although testing is a major part of software development, it rarely gets the attention it deserves from researchers, partly because its foundations are weak and ill-understood. The principal purpose of testing is to detect (and then remove) faults in a software system. However, very few of the existing methods allow the tester to make any precise statement(More)
—This paper presents the application of membrane algorithms to satisfiability problems which are well-known NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. The membrane algorithm , called QEPS, is a combination of P system approaches and quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms. QEPS employs the hierarchical structure of the compartments of P systems, the(More)
To decrease the computational complexity and improve the search capability of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm based on P systems (QEPS), a real-observation QEPS (RQEPS) was proposed. RQEPS is a hybrid algorithm combining the framework and evolution rules of P systems with active membranes and real-observation quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm(More)