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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its metabolite androsterone (A) are natural steroids secreted in high quantities in human body. To assess the influence of oral contraceptives, menstrual cycle phase, and also physical exercise (acute and chronic such as training) on these metabolites excretions, a collection of 28 female urine specimens was organized. A(More)
A simple, rapid, sensitive, and non-consuming solvent method for the determination of cotinine in urine was developed, based on sample preparation by the relatively new technique microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS) and analysis by GC-MS. This optimized method was compared with conventional solid-phase extraction/liquid-liquid extraction method used as(More)
Plant protection spray treatments may expose non-target organisms to pesticides. In the pesticide registration procedure, the honey bee represents one of the non-target model species for which the risk posed by pesticides must be assessed on the basis of the hazard quotient (HQ). The HQ is defined as the ratio between environmental exposure and toxicity.(More)