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Understanding the evolution of social behaviours such as altruism and spite is a long-standing problem that has generated thousands of articles and heated debates. Previous theoretical studies showed that whether altruism and spite evolve may be contingent on seemingly artificial model features, such as which rule is chosen to update the population (for(More)
The complexity of biotic and abiotic environmental conditions is such that the fitness of individuals is likely to depend on multiple traits. Using a synthetic framework of phenotypic evolution that draws from adaptive dynamics and quantitative genetics approaches, we explore how the number of traits under selection influences convergence stability and(More)
Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5, 6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often(More)
The spread of H5N1 avian influenza and the recent high numbers of confirmed human cases have raised international concern about the possibility of a new pandemic. Therefore, antiviral drugs are now being stockpiled to be used as a first line of defence. The large-scale use of antivirals will however exert a strong selection pressure on the virus, and may(More)
Can speciation occur in a single population when different types of resources are available, in the absence of any geographical isolation, or any spatial or temporal variation in selection? The controversial topics of sympatric speciation and ecological speciation have already stimulated many theoretical studies, most of them agreeing on the fact that(More)
Since their first formulations about half a century ago, the soft and hard selection models have become classical frameworks to study selection in subdivided populations. These models differ in the timing of density regulation and represent two extreme types of selection: density- and frequency-dependent selection (soft) and density- and(More)
Most models for the evolution of host defense against parasites assume that host populations are not spatially structured. Yet local interactions and limited dispersal can strongly affect the evolutionary outcome, because they significantly alter epidemiological feedbacks and the spatial genetic structuring of the host and pathogen populations. We provide a(More)
How can we optimize the use of drugs against parasites to limit the evolution of drug resistance? This question has been addressed by many theoretical studies focusing either on the mixing of various treatments, or their temporal alternation. Here we consider a different treatment strategy where the use of the drug may vary in space to prevent the rise of(More)
We study the evolution of specialization in a spatially continuous (one-dimensional) environment divided into two habitats; we use a general trade-off function relating fitnesses in the two habitats and illustrate our results with two classical trade-off functions. We show that the population can either reach an intermediate value of the trait and be(More)
Understanding the conditions for the stable coexistence of different alleles or species is a central topic in theoretical evolution and ecology. Different causes for stable polymorphism or species coexistence have already been identified but they can be grouped into a limited number of general processes. This article is devoted to the presentation and(More)