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Static and dynamic components of mechanical impedance of human forearm were evaluated by applying two kinds of perturbations: 1) large viscoelastic loads, and 2) small pseudo-random perturbations. When the task involved the active resistance of the perturbations, both stiffness and viscosity increased relatively to their values in the passive task, the(More)
Neuronal discharges in the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) of the cat were studied during stimulation of a forelimb muscle and of a site in the contralateral motor cortex (area 4) capable of activating the same muscle. About one third of the LVN units were reactive to both stimulations or at least responded to one (cortex or muscle) but modified the(More)
The firing rate of single cerebellar nuclear neurons was studied during microiontophoretic application of noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their agonists in deeply anesthetized rats. NA application depressed the neuronal firing rate more in the medial nucleus (MN) than in the interpositus (IN) and in the lateral nucleus (LN). These(More)
The effects of noradrenaline (NA) on inhibitory responses to gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurones of the deep cerebellar nuclei were studied in vivo in rats, using extracellular single-unit recordings and microiontophoretic drug application. NA application altered GABA-evoked responses in 95 % of the neurones tested, but the effects differed between(More)
The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the responses of red nucleus (RN) neurones to glutamate (glu) and its agonists were studied using a microiontophoretic technique in anaesthetised rats. Extracellular unitary recordings of RN neuronal activity showed that 5-HT application induced a significant and reversible depression of glu-evoked excitations in(More)
The effects of microiontophoretic application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the neuronal firing rate of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were studied in anaesthetized rats. Ninety-three % of the units modified their background activity following 5-HT iontophoresis, enhancements of the firing rate being recorded in 42%, decreases in 38% and biphasic(More)
The effects of dorsal raphe (DR) electrical stimulation on the neuronal activity of vestibular nuclei were studied in anaesthetized rats. The aim was to establish whether the central systems classically involved in nociceptive functions are able to influence vestibular secondary neurons. DR activation induced modifications of the firing in 70% of the tested(More)
The excitatory responses evoked by glutamate and its agonists in secondary vestibular neurons of the rat were studied during microiontophoretic application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Ejection of 5-HT modified neuronal responsiveness to glutamate in 86% of the studied units, the effect being a depression of the excitatory responses in two-thirds of cases(More)
Microiontophoretic ejection (10-100 nA) of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) into the superior vestibular nucleus induced modifications of the mean firing rate in 87% of the neurons examined. The responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine application were excitatory in 48% of the cells, inhibitory in 29%, and biphasic (inhibitory/excitatory) in the remaining 10%. The(More)
The effects of microiontophoretic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the firing rate of red nucleus (RN) neurons were studied in urethane-anesthetized rats. The background discharge rate of almost all the neurons tested (97%) was modified by 5-HT, and generally increased (89%). Responses were dose dependent. Twenty-three percent of the excitatory responses were(More)