Every technology and activity has safety rules, which are usually formulated explicitly, taught to those operating in the system and imposed on them. Safety rules also determine liability after accidents. Yet there is very little systematic scientific or management literature on how to devise and manage safety rules. This paper uses a simple framework to… (More)
In virtually all safety-critical industries the operators of systems have to demonstrate a systematic and thorough consideration of safety. This is increasingly being done by demonstrating that certain goals have been achieved, rather than by simply following prescriptive standards. Such goal-based safety cases could be a valuable tool for reasoning about… (More)
5.3 Hole in the culture 3 – time windows when forces towards the safety border may exceed the counter forces.
In the United Kingdom, there are more than 9000 reports of adverse events involving medical devices annually. The regulatory processes in Europe and in the United States have been challenged as to their ability to protect patients effectively from unreasonable risk and harm. Two of the major shortcomings of current practice include the lack of transparency… (More)
Recent years have seen an increasing use of sophisticated interaction techniques in the field of command and control systems. The use of such techniques has been required in order to increase the bandwidth between the users and the systems and thus to help them deal efficiently to increasingly complex systems. These techniques come from research and… (More)