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Brain functioning is increasingly seen as a complex interplay of dynamic neural systems that rely on the integrity of structural and functional networks. Recent studies that have investigated functional and structural networks in epilepsy have revealed specific disruptions in connectivity and network topology and, consequently, have led to a shift from(More)
Cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell tumors (SGCT) are two major cerebral lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In the present study, we investigated immunocytochemically the inflammatory cell components and the induction of two major pro-inflammatory pathways (the interleukin (IL)-1beta and complement pathways) in tubers and SGCT(More)
Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can both arise due to mutations of SCN1A, the gene encoding the alpha 1 pore-forming subunit of the sodium channel. GEFS+ refers to a familial epilepsy syndrome where at least two family members have phenotypes that fit within the GEFS+ spectrum. The GEFS+ spectrum comprises a range of(More)
Cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are associated with disabling neurological manifestations, including intractable epilepsy. While these malformations are believed to result from the effects of TSC1 or TSC2 gene mutations, the molecular mechanisms leading to tuber formation, as well as the onset of seizures, remain largely unknown.(More)
PURPOSE We compared epileptiform activity recorded with EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and epilepsy. METHODS High-resolution (HR) EEG, HR-MEG, and 1.5-T MRI scans were performed. Epileptiform spikes were identified in EEG and MEG recordings offline by three observers. Spikes for which the(More)
Neurophysiological studies have reported functional network alterations in epilepsy, most consistently in the theta frequency band. Highly interconnected brain regions (so-called 'hubs') seem to be important in these epileptic networks. High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial EEG recordings are recently discovered biomarkers that can identify the(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and drug-resistant epilepsy may be considered candidates for epilepsy surgery. This demands the unambiguous demonstration of the epileptogenicity of one of the tubers. OBJECTIVE To test whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging enables differentiation of epileptogenic tubers from inert ones.(More)
PURPOSE Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. Although epilepsy surgery has gained interest in recent years uncertainties exist about which patients are good surgical candidates. A systematic review of the available literature has been undertaken to assess the overall outcome of epilepsy surgery and identify risk(More)
Electrical status epilepticus in sleep syndrome is the association of the electroencephalographic pattern and deficits in language or global cognitive function and behavioral problems. The etiology is often unknown, but genetic risk factors have been implicated. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify copy number variations in 13(More)
Establishing an etiologic diagnosis in adults with refractory epilepsy and intellectual disability is challenging. We analyzed the phenotype of 14 adults with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. This phenotype comprised heterogeneous seizure types with nocturnal generalized tonic-clonic seizures predominating, mild to severe intellectual disability, and(More)