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Cerebral arteriosclerosis was observed upon necropsy of a 36-yr-old female captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus) that developed a sudden onset of seizure-like activity and died. The medium and large cerebral arteries of the meninges had moderate to severe diffuse discoloration and mineralization of the matrix of the tunica media, with little or no associated(More)
This retrospective study summarizes 11 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from eight zoologic institutions across the United States and Canada. Ten bears were female, one was male, and the mean age at the time of death was 24 yr old. The most common clinical signs were lethargy, inappetence, and(More)
Our ability to provide analgesia in wild and exotic patients is hampered by a lack of species-specific information on effective drugs and protocols. One contributing factor is the difficulty of applying data from traditional laboratory tests of nociception to clinical conditions frequently involving combinations of inflammatory, mechanical, and neuropathic(More)
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