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Hyperinflammatory responses can lead to a variety of diseases, including sepsis. We now report that extracellular histones released in response to inflammatory challenge contribute to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure and death during sepsis. They can be targeted pharmacologically by antibody to histone or by activated protein C (APC). Antibody to(More)
The influence of the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) on the host response to Escherichia coli was studied. Animals were treated with 4 separate protocols for survival studies and analysis of physiologic and biochemical parameters: (1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that blocks protein C/activated protein C binding to EPCR plus sublethal numbers of E coli(More)
Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) augments protein C activation by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex about 5-fold in vitro. Augmentation is EPCR concentration dependent even when the EPCR concentration is in excess of the thrombomodulin. EPCR is expressed preferentially on large blood vessel endothelium, raising questions about the importance of(More)
We evaluated the effect of C1 inhibitor (C1-inh), an inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement and the contact system, on the physiologic and inflammatory response in baboons suffering from lethal Escherichia coli sepsis. Five animals pretreated with 500 U/kg C1-inh (treatment group; n = 5), followed by a 9-h continuous infusion of 200 U/kg C1-inh(More)
In previous studies, we have shown that administration of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) C6B7 against human factor XII to baboons challenged with a lethal dose of Escherichia coli abrogates activation of the contact system and modulates secondary hypotension. To evaluate the contribution of activated contact proteases to the appearance of other inflammatory(More)
Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), when activated, forms a basic carboxypeptidase that can inhibit fibrinolysis. Potential physiologic activators include both thrombin and plasmin. In vitro, thrombomodulin and glycosaminoglycans increase the catalytic efficiency of TAFI activation by thrombin and plasmin, respectively. The most relevant(More)
Group A streptococcal infections, ranging from necrotizing fasciitis and myositis to toxic shock syndrome, have increased over the last 10 years. We developed the first primate model of necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. Thirteen baboons were inoculated intramuscularly with group A streptococci (GAS). Eleven animals survived for > or = 11 days before(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial invasion during sepsis induces disregulated systemic responses that could lead to fatal lung failure. The purpose of this study was to relate the temporal dynamics of gene expression to the pathophysiological changes in the lung during the first and second stages of E. coli sepsis in baboons. RESULTS Using human oligonucleotide(More)
SUMMARY Indium-111 ("'In) bound to 8-hydroxyquinoline can be used to label platelets without impairing their ability to participate in active thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to identify intracardiac thrombi using "'In platelet scintigraphy. Twenty-nine patients were studied. Twenty-one had discrete left ven-tricular aneurysms (group 1). The(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important regulator of vascular integrity and immune cell migration, carried in plasma by high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) and by albumin. In sepsis, the protein and lipid composition of HDL changes dramatically. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in S1P and its carrier protein(More)