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Oxygen consumption in marine sediments is often coupled to the oxidation of sulphide generated by degradation of organic matter in deeper, oxygen-free layers. Geochemical observations have shown that this coupling can be mediated by electric currents carried by unidentified electron transporters across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that(More)
Based on high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) experiments we reveal a detailed structural model of the polar (111) surface of the insulating ternary metal oxide, MgAl(2)O(4) (spinel). NC-AFM images reveal a 6√3×6√3R30° superstructure on the surface consisting of patches with the original oxygen-terminated MgAl(2)O(4)(111) surface(More)
We have studied the diffusion of the two organic molecules DC and HtBDC on the Cu(110) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy. Surprisingly, we find that long jumps, spanning multiple lattice spacings, play a dominating role in the diffusion of these molecules--the root-mean-square jump lengths are as large as 3.9 and 6.8 lattice spacings, respectively.(More)
We present scanning tunneling microscopy results which reveal the existence of two distinct hydrogen dimer states on graphite basal planes. Density functional theory calculations allow us to identify the atomic structure of these states and to determine their recombination and desorption pathways. Direct recombination is only possible from one of the two(More)
The influence of water chemistry on characterised polyvinyl pyrrolidone- (PVP-) coated silver nanoparticles (81 nm) was investigated. NaCl solution series of 100-800 mg L(-1) lead to initial and temporal increase in nanoparticles size, but agglomeration was limited. pH variation (5-8) had only minor influence on the hydrodynamic particle size. Acute(More)
The creation of complex tissues and organs is the ultimate goal in tissue engineering. Engineered morphogenesis necessitates spatially controlled development of multiple cell types within a scaffold implant. We present a novel method to achieve this by adhering nanoparticles containing different small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into nanostructured scaffolds.(More)
The interaction between dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and three different tantalum nanotopographies with and without a fibronectin coating is examined: sputter-coated tantalum surfaces with low surface roughness <0.2 nm, hut-nanostructured surfaces with a height of 2.9 +/- 0.6 nm and a width of 35 +/- 8 nm, and dome structures with a(More)
To integrate real-time monitoring and therapeutic functions into a single nanoagent, we have designed and synthesized a drug-delivery platform based on a polydopamine(PDA)/human serum albumin (HSA)/doxorubicin (DOX) coated bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) nanoparticle (NP). The resultant product exhibits high stability and biocompatibility both in vitro and in(More)
A novel, fully automated high-stability, high-eigenfrequency scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) has been developed. Its key design feature is the application of two piezoelectric ceramic tubes, one for the x-y-z motion of the tip and one for a linear motor ('nano-worm') used for the coarse positioning of the tip relative to the specimen. By means of the(More)
Through an interplay between scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that bridging oxygen vacancies are the active nucleation sites for Au clusters on the rutile TiO2(110) surface. We find that a direct correlation exists between a decrease in density of vacancies and the amount of Au deposited. From the(More)