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The clinical use of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) as an anticancer drug is limited to local treatments because of its dose-limiting systemic toxicity. We show here that murine TNF fused with CNGRC peptide (NGR-TNF), an aminopeptidase N (CD13) ligand that targets activated blood vessels in tumors, is 12-15 times more efficient than murine TNF in(More)
Drug delivery and penetration into neoplastic cells distant from tumor vessels are critical for the effectiveness of solid-tumor chemotherapy. We have found that targeted delivery to tumor vessels of picogram doses of TNF-alpha (TNF), a cytokine able to alter endothelial barrier function and tumor interstitial pressure, enhances the penetration of(More)
Previous studies showed that chromogranin A (CgA), a glycoprotein stored and co-released with various hormones by neuroendocrine cells and neurons, can modulate cell adhesion. We have investigated the structure-activity relationships of CgA using fibroblasts and coronary artery smooth muscle cells in adhesion assays. A recombinant CgA fragment 1-78 and a(More)
We have investigated the role of p55 and p75 tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2, respectively) in TNF-induced alteration of endothelial permeability in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation of TNFR1 with an agonist antibody or a receptor-selective TNF mutein increased the flux of (125)I-albumin through endothelial cell monolayers. An(More)
AIMS High chromogranin-A (CgA) levels were observed in patients with heart failure but its source remained uncertain. We evaluated whether CgA is produced by myocardium and might affect myocardial function. METHODS AND RESULTS We measured plasma CgA levels and performed immunohistochemistry with anti-CgA antibodies on myocardial biopsies in 40 patients(More)
Elevated levels of circulating chromogranin A (CgA), a protein stored in the secretory granules of many neuroendocrine cells and neurons, have been detected in the blood of patients with neuroendocrine tumors or heart failure. The pathophysiological role of increased secretion of CgA is unknown. Using mice bearing subcutaneous tumors genetically engineered(More)
Isoaspartate formation in extracellular matrix proteins, by aspartate isomerization or asparagine deamidation, is generally viewed as a degradation reaction occurring in vivo during tissue aging. For instance, non-enzymatic isoaspartate formation at RGD-integrin binding sites causes loss of cell adhesion sites, which in turn can be enzymatically "repaired"(More)
Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is regulated by a complex interplay of anti and proangiogenic factors. We found that physiologic levels of circulating chromogranin A (CgA), a protein secreted by the neuroendocrine system, can inhibit angiogenesis in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.(More)
The NGR peptide motif is an aminopeptidase N (CD13) ligand that targets angiogenic blood vessels. NGR-containing peptides have proven useful for delivering cytotoxic drugs, proapoptotic peptides, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF) to tumor vasculature. Given that CD13 is not only expressed in the angiogenic endothelium but also in other cell types, the(More)
It has been proposed that chromogranin A (CgA), a protein secreted by many normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells, can play a role as a positive or a negative modulator of cell adhesion. The mechanisms that regulate these extracellular functions of CgA are unknown. We show here that plasmin can regulate the anti/pro-adhesive activity of CgA by(More)