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Neutrophils are the first cells recruited to the dermal site of Leishmania infection following injection by needle or sand fly bite. The role of neutrophils in either promoting or suppressing host immunity remains controversial. We discuss the events driving neutrophil recruitment, their interaction with the parasite and apoptotic fate, and the nature of(More)
Apoptosis mediated by Fas ligand (FasL) initiates inflammation characterized by neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophils undergo apoptosis and are ingested by macrophages. Clearance of dead neutrophils leads to prostaglandin- and transforming growth factor-beta-dependent replication of Leishmania major in macrophages from susceptible mice. How L. major(More)
We investigated the role of neutrophil elastase (NE) in interactions between murine inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages infected with the parasite Leishmania major. A blocker peptide specific for NE prevented the neutrophils from inducing microbicidal activity in macrophages. Inflammatory neutrophils from mutant pallid mice were defective in the(More)
Ecotin is a potent inhibitor of family S1A serine peptidases, enzymes lacking in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Nevertheless, L. major has three ecotin-like genes, termed inhibitor of serine peptidase (ISP). ISP1 is expressed in vector-borne procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes, whereas ISP2 is also expressed in the mammalian amastigote stage.(More)
Macrophages are host cells for the pathogenic parasite Leishmania major. Neutrophils die and are ingested by macrophages in the tissues. We investigated the role of macrophage interactions with inflammatory neutrophils in control of L. major infection. Coculture of dead exudate neutrophils exacerbated parasite growth in infected macrophages from susceptible(More)
Neutrophils and dendritic cells (DCs) converge at localized sites of acute inflammation in the skin following pathogen deposition by the bites of arthropod vectors or by needle injection. Prior studies in mice have shown that neutrophils are the predominant recruited and infected cells during the earliest stage of Leishmania major infection in the skin, and(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, able to disseminate into deep tissues and cross biological barriers, reaching immunoprivileged sites such as the brain and retina. In order to investigate whether the parasite uses leukocyte trafficking to disseminate throughout the host, the adhesive potential to extracellular matrix components, the(More)
Clearance of apoptotic exudate neutrophils (efferocytosis) induces either pro- or anti-inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages depending on host genetic background. In this study, we investigated whether neutrophil efferocytosis induces a stable macrophage phenotype that could be recalled by late restimulation with LPS. Bone marrow-derived macrophages(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is able to disseminate into deep tissues and cross biological barriers, reaching immunoprivileged sites such as the brain and retina. The parasite is able to infect macrophages and dendritic cells and use them for dispersal throughout the body, but the activation state of those cells is unknown.(More)
BACKGROUND The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the cross-reactivity between a major glutathione-S transferase allergen of cockroach (Bla g 5) and the glutathione-S transferase of Wuchereria bancrofti(More)