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TorsinA is an AAA+ ATPase located within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope, with a mutant form causing early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1). Here we report a new function for torsinA in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Retro-translocation and proteosomal degradation of a mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane(More)
Early-onset torsion dystonia is the most severe heritable form of dystonia, a human movement disorder that typically starts during a developmental window in early adolescence. Deletion in the DYT1 gene, encoding the torsinA protein, is responsible for this dominantly inherited disorder, which is non-degenerative and exhibits reduced penetrance among(More)
Most cases of early onset DYT1 dystonia in humans are caused by a GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene leading to loss of a glutamic acid (ΔE) in the torsinA protein, which underlies a movement disorder associated with neuronal dysfunction without apparent neurodegeneration. Mutation/deletion of the gene (Dst) encoding dystonin in mice results in a dystonic(More)
The hereditary dystonias comprise a set of diseases defined by a common constellation of motor deficits. These disorders are most likely associated with different molecular etiologies, many of which have yet to be elucidated. Here we discuss recent advances in three forms of hereditary dystonia, DYT1, DYT6 and DYT16, which share a similar clinical picture:(More)
Dystonia is a neurological disorder in which sustained muscle contractions induce twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posturing. DYT1 early-onset primary dystonia is the most common form of hereditary dystonia and is caused by deletion of a glutamic acid residue (302/303) near the carboxyl-terminus of encoded torsinA. TorsinA is localized(More)
BACKGROUND Proper migration of neurons is essential for the formation and normal functioning of the nervous system. Defects in neuronal migration underlie a number of neurologic diseases in humans. Although cell migration is crucial for neural development, molecular mechanisms guiding neuronal migration remain to be elucidated fully. Newborn neurons from(More)
BACKGROUND Microfluidic platforms for quantitative evaluation of cell biologic processes allow low cost and time efficient research studies of biological and pathological events, such as monitoring cell migration by real-time imaging. In healthy and disease states, cell migration is crucial in development and wound healing, as well as to maintain the body's(More)
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