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Ketamine is known to improve opioid efficacy, reduce postoperative opioid requirement and oppose opioid associated pain hypersensitivity and tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not clear. This study investigated the effects of ketamine at a non-analgesic dose (30 mg/kg, i.p.) on analgesia induced by morphine (2.5, 5.0,(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence indicates that mangiferin (MGF), a natural xanthone, by virtue of its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties is neuroprotective. Here we sought to verify the cytoprotective role of MGF on cultured rat primary mesencephalic cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, and the MGFs anti-inflammatory potential in(More)
The triterpene mixture, alpha- and beta-amyrin, isolated from Protium heptaphyllum resin was evaluated on capsaicin-evoked nociception in mice. Orally administered alpha- and beta-amyrin (3 to 100 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the nociceptive behaviors--evoked by either subplantar (1.6 microg) or intracolonic (149 microg) application of capsaicin. The(More)
The anti-inflammatory pentacyclic triterpene, oleanolic acid (OA) was examined on acute nociception induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin in mice. OA administered orally to mice at 10, 30 and 100 mgkg(-1), significantly attenuated the paw-licking response to capsaicin (1.6 microg/paw) by 53%, 68.5% and 36.6%, respectively. Ruthenium red (3(More)
Many plant-derived flavonoids including quercetin exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress play an important role in acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of quercetin on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Animal groups were pretreated with quercetin (25, 50, 100(More)
The leaf essential oil from Croton sonderianus (EOCS) was evaluated for antinociceptive activity in mice using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Given orally, the essential oil at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced significant inhibitions on chemical nociception induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid and subplantar formalin or capsaicin(More)
RATIONALE The behavioral effects of methyl xanthines and their interactions with benzodiazepines have not been clearly established in animal models of anxiety. OBJECTIVE The present study extended the previous studies to determine the effects of acute and repeated administration of caffeine, a non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and(More)
This study aimed to assess the possible systemic antinociceptive activity of mangiferin and to clarify the underlying mechanism, using the acute models of chemical (acetic acid, formalin, and capsaicin) and thermal (hot-plate and tail-flick) nociception in mice. Mangiferin at oral doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg evidenced significant antinociception against(More)
Pentacyclic triterpenes in general exert beneficial effects in metabolic disorders. This study investigated the effects of α, β-amyrin, a pentacyclic triterpene mixture from the resin of Protium heptaphyllum on blood sugar level and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and in mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice treated(More)
Byrsonima sericea leaves are extensively used in folk medicine in Brazil against gastric disorders. This study investigated the chemical constituents of B. sericea leaf ethanolic extract (BSLE) and its potential gastroprotective activity, with its possible mechanism of the action using ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage in mice. The phytochemical(More)