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BACKGROUND A number of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways and cell-cycle events have been identified that regulate cell proliferation, yet studies to date have been unable to determine which of these pathways control mitogenesis in response to physiologically relevant changes in tissue elasticity. In this report, we use hydrogel-based substrata matched to(More)
Many cell types, including neurons, astrocytes and other cells of the central nervous system respond to changes in extracellular matrix or substrate viscoelasticity, and increased tissue stiffness is a hallmark of several disease states including fibrosis and some types of cancers. Whether the malignant tissue in brain, an organ that lacks the protein-based(More)
Whereas recent studies suggest that cholesterol plays important role in the regulation of membrane proteins, its effect on the interaction of the cell membrane with the underlying cytoskeleton is not well understood. Here, we investigated this by measuring the forces needed to extract nanotubes (tethers) from the plasma membrane, using atomic force(More)
This study has investigated the effect of cellular cholesterol on membrane deformability of bovine aortic endothelial cells. Cellular cholesterol content was depleted by exposing the cells to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or enriched by exposing the cells to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin saturated with cholesterol. Control cells were treated with(More)
Hypogelsolinemia is observed in patients with different states of acute or chronic inflammation such as sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. In animal models of sepsis, repletion of plasma gelsolin reduces septic mortality. However, the functions of extracellular gelsolin and the mechanisms leading to its protective nature are poorly(More)
Changes in tissue and organ stiffness occur during development and are frequently symptoms of disease. Many cell types respond to the stiffness of substrates and neighboring cells in vitro and most cell types increase adherent area on stiffer substrates that are coated with ligands for integrins or cadherins. In vivo cells engage their extracellular matrix(More)
In addition to its antibacterial activity, the cathelicidin-derived LL-37 peptide induces multiple immunomodulatory effects on host cells. Atomic force microscopy, F-actin staining with phalloidin, passage of FITC-conjugated dextran through a monolayer of lung epithelial cells, and assessment of bacterial outgrowth from cells subjected to Pseudomonas(More)
This study investigates the effect of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) on the biomechanical properties of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We show that treatment with OxLDL results in a 90% decrease in the membrane deformability of HAECs, as determined by micropipette aspiration. Furthermore, aortic endothelial cells freshly(More)
Alignment of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in the direction of the flow is considered a key factor in maintaining endothelial integrity in an active hemodynamic environment. Our recent studies showed that exposure to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), one of the major proatherogenic lipoproteins, significantly increases the stiffness of human aortic ECs, suggesting(More)
There is a growing appreciation of the profound effects that passive mechanical properties, especially the stiffness of the local environment, can have on cellular functions. Many experiments are conducted in a 2D geometry (i.e., cells grown on top of substrates of varying stiffness), which is a simplification of the 3D environment often experienced by(More)