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Vibrios are natural inhabitants of aquatic environments and form symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with eukaryotic hosts. Recent studies reveal that the ability of vibrios to form biofilms (i.e. matrix-enclosed, surface-associated communities) depends upon specific structural genes (flagella, pili and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and regulatory(More)
In their natural environment, microbes organize into communities held together by an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides and proteins. We developed an in vivo labeling strategy to allow the extracellular matrix of developing biofilms to be visualized with conventional and superresolution light microscopy. Vibrio cholerae biofilms displayed(More)
Reversible phase variation between the rugose and smooth colony variants is predicted to be important for the survival of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic habitats. Microarray expression profiling studies of the rugose and smooth variants of the same strain led to the identification of 124 differentially regulated genes. Further expression profiling(More)
Biofilm formation enhances the survival and persistence of the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae in natural ecosystems and its transmission during seasonal cholera outbreaks. A major component of the V. cholerae biofilm matrix is the Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), which is essential for development of three-dimensional biofilm structures. The vps(More)
Phase variation between smooth and rugose colony variants of Vibrio cholerae is predicted to be important for the pathogen's survival in its natural aquatic ecosystems. The rugose variant forms corrugated colonies, exhibits increased levels of resistance to osmotic, acid, and oxidative stresses, and has an enhanced capacity to form biofilms. Many of these(More)
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, can undergo phenotypic variation generating rugose and smooth variants. The rugose variant forms corrugated colonies and well-developed biofilms and exhibits increased levels of resistance to several environmental stresses. Many of these phenotypes are mediated in part by increased expression of the vps(More)
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, can generate rugose variants that have an increased capacity to form biofilms. Rugosity and biofilm formation are critical for the environmental survival and transmission of the pathogen, and these processes are controlled by cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) signaling systems. c-di-GMP is produced by(More)
Microorganisms can switch from a planktonic, free-swimming life-style to a sessile, colonial state, called a biofilm, which confers resistance to environmental stress. Conversion between the motile and biofilm life-styles has been attributed to increased levels of the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), yet the(More)
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a facultative human pathogen with intestinal and aquatic life cycles. The capacity of V. cholerae to recognize and respond to fluctuating parameters in its environment is critical to its survival. In many microorganisms, the second messenger, 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), is believed to be(More)
Indole has been proposed to act as an extracellular signal molecule influencing biofilm formation in a range of bacteria. For this study, the role of indole in Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation was examined. It was shown that indole activates genes involved in vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) production, which is essential for V. cholerae biofilm formation. In(More)