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While the impact of intellectual property rights on the diffusion and use of scientific knowledge is at the heart of contemporary policy debates, evidence about the role of patents in science has been anecdotal. Although many scholars suggest that IPR has a positive effect on cumulative innovation, a growing “anti-commons” perspective highlights the(More)
The question of exactly how science is commercialized is an important one. While the social structures of “science” and “technology” are distinctive, recent work suggests that scientific and technological ideas in fact co-evolve. This paper addresses the dynamics of such co-evolution: are scientific networks deeply co-mingled with networks through which(More)
Conventional wisdom suggests that when institutional logics overlap, the production of hybrids signifies collapse, blending, or easy coexistence. The author provides an alternative interpretation: hybrids can maintain a distinctive boundary and can emerge from contestation, not coexistence. This alternative interpretation is grounded in an analysis of a(More)
Although many scholars suggest that IPR has a positive effect on cumulative innovation, a growing “anti-commons” perspective highlights the negative role of IPR over scientific knowledge. At its core, this debate is centered on how intellectual property rights over a given piece of knowledge affect the propensity of future researchers to build upon that(More)
Boric acid (BA), an essential plant micronutrient, occurs naturally in fruits, vegetables, and other foods. It is widely used in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, and other products. In a prior study, gestational exposure to BA was associated with developmental toxicity in the rat, including fetal growth retardation and altered skeletal morphology. In(More)
We analyzed longitudinal data on academic careers and conducted interviews with faculty members to determine the scope and causes of the gender gap in patenting among life scientists. Our regressions on a random sample of 4227 life scientists over a 30-year period show that women faculty members patent at about 40% of the rate of men. We found that the(More)
Organizational theorists have built a deep understanding of the conditions affecting knowledge sharing. However, for innovation to occur, knowledge must not just be shared, but also reused, recombined, and accumulated. Such accumulation is not inherent to the innovation process but can be either supported or limited by the context in which it occurs. We(More)
Access to a pool of talented employees is an important element of entrepreneurial firms’ ability to build innovative capabilities. Through an empirical examination of two European biotechnology clusters – Cambridge, UK, and Munich, Germany – we investigate the degree to which macro-labor market institutions shape the micro-dynamics of career affiliation(More)