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Occupancy of the T-cell antigen receptor is insufficient to induce T-cell activation optimally; a second co-stimulatory signal is required. Exposure of T-cell clones to complexes of antigen with major histocompatibility complex molecules in the absence of the co-stimulatory signal induces a state of clonal anergy. This requirement for two stimuli for T-cell(More)
Human sequence monoclonal antibodies, which in theory combine high specificity with low immunogenicity, represent a class of potential therapeutic agents. But nearly 20 years after Köhler and Milstein first developed methods for obtaining mouse antibodies, no comparable technology exists for reliably obtaining high-affinity human antibodies directed against(More)
The activation requirements for the generation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in the absence of exogenous help, a CD28-B7 interaction is necessary and sufficient for generation of class I major histocompatibility complex-specific CTL. Costimulation is required only during the inductive phase of the response,(More)
The human G1m1 allotype comprises two amino acids, D12 and L14, in the CH3 domain of IGHG1. Although the G1m1 allotype is prevalent in human populations, ~40% of Caucasiods are homozygous for the nG1m1 allotype corresponding to E12 and M14. Peptides derived from the G1m1 region were tested for their ability to induce CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses in(More)
Recent advances in Immuno-Oncology (IO) have shown that the immune system can be activated to induce long term durable anti-tumor responses. For IO drug development , immune activation is typically explored using rat surrogate antibodies in immunocompetent mouse models. While these models can be used to show efficacy in vivo, the development of anti-drug(More)
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