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Sex work remains an important contributor to HIV transmission within early, advanced and regressing epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, but its social and behavioral underpinnings remain poorly understood, limiting the impact of HIV prevention initiatives. This article systematically reviews the socio-demographics of female sex workers (FSW) in this region,(More)
The last four decades have seen a significant increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a possible result of increasing environmental carcinogen exposure, particularly pesticides and solvents. Based on the increasing evidence for an association between carcinogen exposure-related cancer risk and xenobiotic gene polymorphisms, we have(More)
Lymphoproliferative diseases are characterized by chromosomal aberrations, and susceptibility may depend on inherited activity of enzymes required for DNA synthesis and methylation. We analysed genetic polymorphisms for methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and MTHFR A1298C in Caucasians with non-Hodgkin's(More)
Vaginal practices, such as intra-vaginal cleansing, drying and tightening, are suspected of placing women at higher risk of acquiring HIV and STIs. Yet, there is limited understanding of what these practices entail, what motivates women to undertake them and what their socio-cultural and historical meanings are. This paper explores the range of vaginal(More)
Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4(More)
BACKGROUND Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically(More)
BACKGROUND Several biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors place female sex workers (FSWs) at heightened risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. FSW projects in many settings have demonstrated effective ways of altering this risk, improving the health and wellbeing of(More)
The lie has been presented as a performance that protects identities against moral judgment in the context of power imbalances. We explore this assertion from the perspective of a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial to prevent HIV for African women in South Africa, in which context biological evidence of widespread lying about product adherence was produced,(More)
Genetic variations in the activity of xenobiotic enzymes may predict susceptibility to multiple myeloma (MM). In a case-control study, 90 Australian Caucasians with MM had significantly higher incidences of GST T1 null, PON1 BB and NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes, but no difference in polymorphism frequencies for GST M1, NAT1, and CYP1A1 when compared to(More)
Telomere length can be used to predict the replicative capacity of haematological progenitor cells and may be an important prognostic factor for the onset of cellular immune dysfunction. However, such measurements require invasive bone marrow (BM) biopsies and laborious stem cell isolations that are impractical in a clinical setting. Previous studies have(More)